Glossary – R


R: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue 2: abbreviation for Reprint 3: Registration, Registered, Recommandé (Sp.) 4: precedes the European postal code on addresses in Romania, such as R-70119, Bucharest. 5: registro (Sp.) registered 6: Rand; currency unit in Republic of South Africa, Namibia. 7: Real, currency unit in Brazil 8: Riel, currency unit in Cambodia, Iran. 9: (With value) Reunion overprint on stamps of France, French Colonies. 10: India inscription on stamps of J(h)ind, India, 1874-85. 11: Ecuador, overprint by SCADTA, 1928-20. 12: inscription / overprint Colombia registration. 13: overprint on stamps of Northern Rhodesia changing a postage stamp to a revenue issue. 14: overprint/surcharge on stamps of Panama for registration fee
R., R.R., R.R.R.: degrees of rarity, in ascending order
R, r: Riyal: currency unit in Qatar, Saudi Arabia
R, r: Rupee, currency unit in India, Mauritius, Nepal, Pakistan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka
R, r: Ruble, currency unit in Belarus, Russia
R, Ri: Rial, currency unit in Sultanate of Oman, Yemen
R, Ri: Ringgit, currency unit in Malaysia
R, Ru: Ruble, currency unit in Belarus, Russia, Tajikistan, Transdniestra
R, Ru: Rufiya, currency unit in Republic of Maldives
R & S: Reiche and Sendbuehler Nos. (Canadian small Queen issue re-entries)
RA: Scott Catalog number prefix for Postal Tax
Raab’s Express Co.: label, local express, Hoboken, NJ and Barclay, NY
R.A.A.F.: Royal Australian Air Force
RAB: Scott Catalog number prefix for Postal Tax Semi-postal (Brazil, Greece)
Rab: formerly Arbe, island part of Fiume; 1920, Nov.: stamps issued for Arbe, now Rab, 1920, Dec. 24: stamps withdrawn
Rabattmarke: (Ger.) discount savings stamp
Rabaul: capital of New Britain in Bismarck Archipelago; formerly part of German New Guinea; 1914: British forces took over from Germany, stamps overprinted “G.R.I.” on German New Guinea registration labels
Rabaul-G.R.I.: “Georgius Rex Imperator” New Britain overprint
RAC: Scott Catalog number prefix for Air Mail Postal Tax (Dominican Republic, Haiti)
Rac.: (It.) raccomandata (registered), pre-adhesive postmark
Racapito Autorizzato: (It.) Italy, authorized delivery stamp
Raccogliere: (It.) collect; to assemble or bring together
RADA: displaced person camp, Ukrainian National Council, 1948-49
Rada Miejska Miasta Przedborza: (Pol.) Town Council of Przedborz; city in Poland, local post, 1917-18
Radetsky, S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built around 1840s, for lower Danube lines
Radio Tax Stamp: a license fee for the ownership and use of a radio; started 1920s in many countries
Rádkové Zoubkování: (Czech.) line perforation
Rakousko: (Czech.) Austria
Rakousky: (Czech.) Austrian
Rakousko-Uhersko: (Czech.) Austria-Hungary
Radway & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
RAF: Royal Air Force, Great Britain
Rag content paper: cotton fiber usage rather than wood pulp in the manufacture fo envelopes; high rag content envelopes stand up better over a period of time than wood fiber covers, which may contain processing chemicals that eventually discolor the paper
Rafiyaa: currency unit in Maldive Islands, 1951
Ragasztönyommal: (Hung.) mint, hinged, használatlan falcos
Rahmen: (Ger.) frame, a border
Rahmanieh: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1880
Rahmenstempel: (Ger.) framed or boxed marking
Railroad: handstamp on Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, Albany, N.Y., 1837
Railroad cancel: postal cancellation applied in a railway post office aboard a train
Rail Road Car: handstamp on baggage or mail car of an independent railroad indicated mailing status and fee paid
Railway Air Services: airmail operations by and behalf of railway firms; in 1934, the four major British rail firms formed the Railway Mail Service and ran an airmail network throughout the country
Railway cancels: used on traveling post offices (T.P.O.), marking may be “Poste Ambulante” in France and Belgium; terminal points are used in Germany and Egypt; sometimes with the train number
Railway company stamps: local or semi-official stamps issued by railway firms to denote fees payable for mail carried
Railway Letter Fee Stamp: a special stamp was available between 1891 and 1922 for railway firms in Great Britain and Ireland for letters handed in at stations to be collected on arrival or put into regular postal delivery at the station nearest the addressee; replaced by Railway Parcel Stamps
Railway Mail Service: division of the Post Office Department that includes Railway Post Offices, Terminal Railway Post Offices, Transfer Offices and Pouch Services
Railway Parcel Stamps: stamps issued by the railroad firms to prepay the freight charges on packages, first issued in 1846
Railway Post Office (RPO): portable mail-handling equipment for sorting mail while on transit on trains
Railroad: Eisenbahn (Ger.) ; Chemin d’Fer (Fr.) ; Ferrovia (It.) ; Ferrocarril (Sp.)
Railroad marking: postmark applied by postal employees to mail carried on railroad cars
Railroad post routes: the Act of July 7, 1838, section 2, states, “Each and every railroad within the limits of the U. S. which now is, or hereafter may be completed, shall be a post route.”
Railway: railroad
Railway Letter: local, Montreal, Canada, 1971
Railway postmark: Bahnpoststempel (Ger.) ; Oblitération de Chemin d’Fer (Fr.) ; Bollo di Ferrovia (It.) ; Matasellos de Ferrocarril (Sp.) Railway post office (RPO): post office in a mail car on board a railroad, many often have a route marking
Railway stamp: stamps issued to carry parcels or mail on the trains of various railway firms, since it is considered an express service, the stamps are usually used in addition to the normal postage stamps. 1: Belgium railway parcel post issues, started 1879. 2: British express stamp, used in addition to postage stamps
Railway terminal cancellation: end terminals on rail routes
Rainbow Creek: bogus issue, located in Victoria’s Gippsland, 1979
Rainbow proofs, trials: British color trials to test various colored inks, cancellations and paper; 1840-41
Raised S: refers to the letter “S” in the word postage being slightly higher and tilted on U.S. Scott U525, postal stationery cut square
RAJ: Scott Catalog number prefix for Postal Tax Due
Rajasthan: union of 14 Rajputanan Indian states; 1948: first local stamps, overprint of internal issues, 1950, Apr. 1: stamps discontinued, now uses stamps of Republic of India, also India overprint on stamps of Jaipur, Kishangarh
Rajnandgaon: India Nandgaon Feudatory State
Rajpeepla (Rajpipla): India Feudatory State; 1880: first local stamps, 1886: stamps discontinued, uses stamps of Republic of India
Raj. Service: former Indian native state with own stamp issue, 1880-86
Rakete: (Ger.) rocket
Raketenflugpost: (Ger.) flown rocket mail
Raketpost: (Dan., Nor.) rocket mail
Rakettpost: (Nor.) rocket mail
Räknat: (Swed.) counted
Raleigh, N.C. paid 5: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Raleigh Stamp post Sv.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Ram: (Swed.) frame
Rámkove Zoubkování: (Czech.) harrow perforation
Ramleh: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1865-80
Ramleh Staz-Bacos: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1882
Ramleh Staz-Bulkey: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1880-82
Ramleh Staz-Fleming: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1880
Ramleh Staz-Schutz: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1880-82
Ramme: (Den., Nor.) frame
Rammehøyde: (Nor.) height of frame
Rammelinie: (Dan.) frame line
Ramses: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1872-79
Rand: 1: (Dan., Ger.) margin. 2: currency unit in South Africa, South-West Africa, (Namibia), Basutoland (Lesotho), Bechuanaland (Botswana), Swaziland, and Tristan da Cunha
Randall Postal Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Randall’s Express: local parcel serviced Boston and Rockland, Mass
Randello: (It.) association, club
Randers: 1. local bypost, Denmark, 1885-89. 2. Seaport city in Århus county, E Jutland Peninsula, Denmark, on the Gudenå River where it enters Randers Fjord ca. 15 miles from the Kattegut arm of the North Sea, and ca. 140 mile NW of Copenhagen. Local post established May 1885, with first “Randers Bypost og Pakke-Expedition” lithographed local stamps issued on the same day, and with numerous others issued through 1889. The local post was absorbed by the Danish Post Office in December 1889
Randers Hadsund Jernbane: local, Denmark railway post
Randgebiet: (Ger.) sideline collecting, anything collectible
R.& R.S. Special Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Rang I: Level One, national level German stamp exhibitions. The exhibitions are given the rankings, while the exhibitors have to work their way up through those ratings with their exhibits
Rang II: Level Two, regional level German stamp exhibitions
Rang III: Level Three, local level German stamp exhibitions
Rangée: (Fr.) row of stamps
Ransom, D. & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Ransom, D. Son & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Ransoneringsförsändelse: (Swed.) cover regarding rationing of goods, WW II
Rapa-Nui: Chile overprints for Easter Island, bogus
Rapid Delivery Co.: 1888?, local parcel serviced the Milwaukee, Wisc. area
Rapid Delivery Co. Limited: local parcel serviced the New Orleans, La., area
Rapido: (Sp.) daytime express trains, found on “ambulante” postmarks
Rapid Package Delivery: local parcel service operated in the Los Angeles, Calif. area
Rappen: currency unit in Liechtenstein and Switzerland
RAPT: Rhodesia Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis
Rareté: (Fr.) rarity
Rareza: (Sp.) rarity
Rarisimo: (Sp.) extremely rare
Rarissime: (Fr.) extremely rare
Rarità, Raro: (It.) rarity
Rarität: (Ger.) rare, rarity
Rarity: term used in judging an exhibit to determine relative scarcity of an item
Raro: (Sp.) rare, scarce
Rarotonga: 15 islands on stamps of New Zealand from Cook Islands; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1967) 1903: – 1932, 1972: separate stamp issues for Aitutaki, Penrhyn Islands, 1919-pre: stamps inscribed “Cook Islands Federation” and “Cook Islands,” 1919: No.1, ½ pence yellow green, Rarotonga overprint on stamps of New Zealand, 1920: inscribed Rarotonga, but used throughout Cook Islands group, 1932: used stamps inscribed Cook Islands; Cook Islands
Ras al Khaima: Oman Peninsula, one of the United Arab Emirates; currency: 100 naye paise = 1 rupee 1964, Dec. 21: No.1, 5 naye paise brown and black, first stamps, 1965: first stamp, 1972, Feb. 10: joined the United Arab Emirates; Trucial States, United Arab Emirates
Raseiniu: Lithuania local issue
Ras-el-Khalig: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1880-84
Rasgadura: (Sp.) a tear (in a postage stamp or cover)
Rassemblez: (Fr.) collect; to assemble or bring together
Rasterdjuptryck: (Swed.) half-tone recess printing
Rastertiedruck: (Ger.) offset printing method, photogravure
Rate: the amount of money charged for a postal service
Rate change cover: cover posted on the first day of a new postage rate
Rated: term used by U.S. Post office is 18th and early 19th century for mail to be “rated” or examined to determine fees
Rate it up: USPS term for mail piece that has been examined and any additional (forwarding, shortage) postage determined
Rate Mark: numeral on a stampless letter indicating the amount of postage to be collected from the addressee
Ratni Doprinos: inscription on stamps of Croatia for semi-postals
Rattlesnake Island: U.S. local post, Lake Erie, began with rectangular stamps, but the USPS required that they change the shape so that their “stamps” would not be confused with regular postage stamps
RAU: Syria overprint for International Children’s Day, 1958
Raubstaat: (Ger.) country issuing stamps solely to exploit the collector
Raute: (Ger.) lozenge
Ravenglass & Eskdale: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Rawden, Wright, Hatch & Edson: New York security printing firm during 19th century
Rayer: (Fr.) to delete, to cross out
Raymond & Co.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Rayon I, II, III: inscription on early issues of Switzerland indicating a district, or zone system for rates,1850-52; Rayon IV had no stamps, abolished in 1851
Razitko: (Czech.) postmark
Razitko z Ochoty: (Czech.) postmark of readiness, a handy postmarking device
Razitko Zvlástní: (Czech.) special postmark
Razítkovaná: (Czech.) used, canceled
RB: 1. Scott Catalog number prefix to identify U.S. Revenue Proprietary. 2. Road Board, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74. 3. Rudolph Bender, BEP employee’s initials, 1906-1928; Plate Finisher Initials
R.B. & S. Special Delivery: serviced an unknown area, labels exist
R-Brief: (Ger.) Einschreibebrief, registered letter
R.B.S.: “Rigsbank Skilling” currency unit in Denmark, 1851
RC: 1. auction abbreviation for red cross. 2. international postal code for Taiwan. 3. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Future Delivery
R.C. & W. (Ryder, Crouse & Welch): Private die match proprietary stamps
RCASC: Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, formerly Canadian Army Service Corps, (CASC) 1901, then Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps (CPASC), 1903, added Royal in WWI, no longer used after 1968
RCN: Royal Canadian Navy
R. Commissariato: overprint on stamps of Yugoslavia for Ljubljana (Lubiana), Italian occupation, 1941-45
RD: 1. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Stock Transfer. 2. Robert Dailey, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; Plate Finisher, Siderographer
R. de C.: (Sp.) Recargo de Construcción (Reconstruction of Communications) surcharge/ overprint on stamps of Nicaragua for the rebuilding of the Managua General Post Office
R. de C. Garzon 1894 No Hay Estampillas: (Sp.) Republic of Colombia, Tomina, “No stamps Available”
R de Panama: overprint on stamps of Panama, 1903-04, for use in Bocas del Toro, Panama
R.D.M.: Rydende Dienst Macht, Orange Free State, local post, 1898-99
R.D.P.: Roll of Distinguished Philatelists
RE: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Cordials, Wines, etc. 2: catalog abbreviation for reinforced
REA: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Beer
Reading Match Co.: Private die match proprietary stamps
Read The News: inscription on stamp labels produced by A.C. Roessler as a copy of the U.S. 1931 2¢ Red Cross issue
Real: 1: (Sp.) royal 2: currency unit in Central and South America
Real Photo: postcard made from an actual photograph with a preprinted back
Real Plata Fuerta: currency in Cuba, Puerto Rico; used as payment for stamps
Real Renta de Correos: (Sp.) single postal service established by the Spanish Crown in the New World in 1767
Real Servicio: (Sp.) Royal Service marking from the Spanish colonial period in Mexico
Reay envelopes: George H. Reay produced fine engraved envelopes of the U.S., 1870-74
Rebuts: 1: postal marking instruction to return the piece of mail. 2: (Fr.) (service des) undeliverable or refused international mail being returned to sender
Rebuts Commission: handstamp for St. Thomas, Danish West Indies postage dues for dead letter office
Recapito Autorizzato: (It.) inscription, or fiscal stamp, denoting the tax on mail permitted to be delivered by private services, also known as “authorized delivery” stamp
Recapito impossible: (It.) undeliverable (mail)
Recargo: (Sp.) “Extra Charge” surcharge, inscription on stamps of Spain for war tax, 1898-99
Recargo obligatorio: (Sp.) compulsory surcharge
Recatul Romania: Yugoslavia, bogus
Receipted parcels: British Post Office parcel service, with serial labels printed in red on yellow paper; similar to Certified Mail
Received in Damaged Condition: USPS self-adhesive label initiated Fall, 2000, can also be used to seal torn mail
Received in Damaged Condition: self-adhesive USPS label, initiated in year 2000, as a generic apology for damaged mail, can also be used as a seal in closing tears
Received from H.M. Ships: British handstamp for letters posted on board ships and bearing a censor cancellation
Received marking: postmark applied to the back of a cover that denotes the receiving town or city, date and, sometimes, the time of arrival
Receiver’s stamp: handstamp with name or initials of a receiver of Town or City local letters; 17th century
Receiving cancel: Ankunftstempel (Ger.) ; Marque d’Arrivée (Fr.) ; Obliterazione di Ricevitmento (It.) , Matasellos de Recepción (Sp.)
Receiving house: term formally used in England for place where mail was received
Receiving mark: a postal marking applied by the receiving post office
Receiving ship: postmark for a ship with a barrack-like structure used as a temporary home for recruits and transient sailors awaiting assignments to other ships
Recensement: (Fr.) registration for identity card; French Colonies revenue inscription
Récépissés: receipt; French Colonies revenue inscription
Récépissés de Transport: transportation receipts; French Colonies revenue inscription
Récépissés de Chemin de Fer: railway receipts; French Colonies revenue inscription
Réception: (Fr.) receipt
Recess printing: a graphic arts process where the inked image is below the surface of the printing plate; recess printed stamps have a raised image
Recette: (Fr.) post office
REC’G CDS: Receiving Circular Date Stamp
Rechnung: (Ger.) bill, invoice
Rechromed: replating a printing plate with chrome to extend the useful life after it has been repaired or restored
Rechts: (Ger., Dut.) right
Recibo: (Sp.) receipt
Recife: formerly city of Pernambuco, Brazil
Reclamado: (Sp.) fees collected over normal postage
Recoja: (Sp.) collect; to assemble or bring together
Recom: (Fr.) recommandé (registered), pre-adhesive postmark
Recomandata: (Rom.) registered letter
Recomendada: (Sp.) inscription on stamps of Colombia for registered letter, 1881
Recomendado: (Sp.) inscription on stamps of Colombia for registered letter, 1925
Recommande: (Fr.) registered
Recon: reconstructed
Reconstruction: re-assemble a sheet of stamp as originally engraved by collecting specimens; also known as plating
Recorded Delivery: British term for Certified Mail, with a receipt given to the sender
Recorded message stamps: Fonopostal, used in Argentina, 1939, to prepay fees for messages recorded on disks
Record flight: flight that establishes a new record for speed, distance, altitude, or endurance
Records: flexible recorded records sent to scientists in the Antarctic in 1937
Recortado: (Sp.) cut close
Recorte: (Sp.) cut square
Recouvrements: (Fr.) “recoveries,” postage due, to collect postage on returned C.O.D. items
Recouvrements-Taxe a Percevoir: (Fr.) “Value to Collect” inscription on stamps for amount to collect for magazine subscriptions, etc., French language countries
Recouvrements-Valeurs Impayees: (Fr.) “Value Unpaid” inscription on stamps for amount to collect for magazine subscriptions, etc., French language countries
Rectification Tax stamps: inscription on U.S. Internal Revenue Service tax stamps for condensed and purified distilled spirits, 1946
Rectoverso: (Sp.) stamps printed on both sides of the paper
Reçu: (Fr.) receipt
Recuerdo del I’De Febrero: (Sp.) Honduras, 1916
Recut: an unhardened printing plate that has been retouched
Recycled Paper: replaced watermarked paper starting in 1992
Red: informal term for a piece of registered mail; name came when registered mail was sent in red-striped pouches.
b 1961 Afghanistan surcharge for Red Crescent Society
Red Band cover: indicates registered mail in China
Red Cross: 1: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1944, 1963. 2: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1963. 3: Rotes Kreuz (Ger.) , Croix-Rouge (Fr.), Croice Rosa (It.), Cruz Roja (Sp.)
Red Cross frank stamps: Switzerland revenue issue; can be found with postmark on covers
Red Cross Message Scheme: used for the exchange of mail between persons living on opposing sides during World War II, operated out of Switzerland
Red Cross stamps: semi-postal stamps issued to benefit the Red Cross organization of a nation; was first used in Portugal in 1889
Redding’s Russia Salve: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Redentado: (Sp.) re-perforated
Red error: the 5¢ red error in the 1917 plate of the 2¢ carmine value
Red hand: enclosed on a six-pointed star national symbol of Ulster, on Northern Irish stamps
Redistributed original gum: gum which has been moistened and respread to present the appearance of a non-hinged surface
Red Line City Express Co.: 1895; stamps, local package delivery serviced the Chicago, Ill area
Red Line Express Co.: 1892-83; stamps, local package delivery serviced Chicago, Ill area
Red mercury: Austria newspaper stamp issued in 1856
Redonda: uninhabited island belonging to Antigua; 1979: stamps valid for postage in Antigua; overprint on stamps of Antigua
Redondo: (Sp.) round
Redrawn: a design with the general features of a previous stamp by having a difference in some detail
Red error: the U.S. 5¢ error in the 2¢ value sheet with Washington’s portrait
Red Revenue surcharge: temporary surcharge used when the Chinese Imperial Post was started in 1897
Reds: U.S. red commemorative (1920s) and documentary stamps (1940-58)
Red Sea Islands Federation: Red Sea island fantasy
Red Star: 1973-76, Postal Service, Boston, used a red star for next day delivery at no extra charge
Red Suspender League: formed in 1959 by Dr. James J. Matejka, Jr. and a group of Chicago area collectors to honor collectors who have helped promote the hobby
Reduced: a postal piece that has been cut to eliminate uneven edges
Reed & Thompson: Private die match proprietary stamps
Reed’s City Despatch Post: U. S. local post, San Francisco, Calif., 1853-54
Reel perforator: stamps perforated on continuous reels or webs of paper
Reembolsos: (Sp.) collect on delivery mail
Reemision: (Sp.) reentry
Re-engrave: to remake all or a portion of a printing plate or die by making additions or corrections without significantly changing it
Re-engraved stamp: may have small or major details changed
Re-entry: 1: created when the transfer roll, with the stamp impression imprinted unevenly on the soft metal of the printing plate creating a weak impression, which is only detectable if there is a second impression or “re-entry.” 2: Nachgravierung (Ger.), Retrant (Fr.), Doppia Incisione (It.), Regrabado (Sp.)
Reenviar: (Sp.) to send-on, to re-address
Reexpedir: (Sp.) to forward or send on
Reference numbers: British term for plate numbers on Empire stamps printed by De La Rue & Co
Reflectance: USPS term for situation where the paper color renders the postal service’s equipment unable to read the barcodes; dark colors are out, white works best
Reformed legislature: India Feudatory State of Hyderabad
Réfugié: (Fr.) refugee
Refugiat: (Rom.) refugee
Refusé: (Fr.) refused
Refused mail: mail that is not accepted by the addressee and is returned to sender
Reg: 1: registered. 2: Reggio (Northern Italy) pre-adhesive postmark
Regat: (Rom.) kingdom
Regatul PTT Romaniei: “Kingdom of Romania”overprint on stamps of Hungary for Romania, occupation of Transylvania issue, 1919
Regatul Romaniei: (Rom.) “Kingdom of Romania”overprint on stamps of Hungary, Romanian Occupation, 1918
Rege: (Rom.) king
Regence de Tunis: (Fr.) “Regency of Tunis” Tunisia, 1888-1908
Regensburg: displaced persons camp local post, “Ukrainian Post,” 1947-48
Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro: (It.) “Italian regency of Quarnaro” overprint on stamps of Fiume in Gulf of Carnaro, during occupation by Legionnaires of d’Annunzio,” 1920
Regie P.: (It.) Royal Post (Italy) pre-adhesive postmark
Regierung: (Ger.) reign, government
Regierungs Dienstsache: (Ger.) overprint on official stamps of Liechtenstein
Regina: (Rom.) queen
Regio Esercito: “Royal Army” inscription on Italian label designed to be attached to an official document with an Italian army unit postmark
Regional commemoratives: new USPS stamp issues in certain areas where they are expected to be popular
Regional issue: USPS new issue available only in locale where first day issue took place
Regional Mail Collect.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Regionals: definitive stamps issued by Great Britain since 1958 for the regions of Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The regionals are usually sold only in the assigned region, but are valid for postage throughout the country
Regio Post-Noord Oost Friesland (NOF): local post, Netherlands, 2003
Registered: Eingeschreiben (Ger.), Recommandé (Fr.), Raccomandata (It.), Registrado (Sp.)
Registered envelopes: issued by Great Britain in 1878 for registered mail, with crossed blue lines
Registered mail: mail with a numbered receipt that is signed by each postal employee as it is handled during processing
Register mark: any marking that is put on the sheet margin for the exact adjustment of the perforations of the sheet in the production process; usually crosses with point holes
Registration: 1: in printing, used to designate a part of a design in relation to another part of the same design. 2: keeping the colors “in register” to registration of perforations, die-cutting and tagging
Registration labels: a numbered gummed label that indicates the registration number and the city of origin for registered articles
Registration handstamp, first U.S.: an Act of Congress on July 1,1855 authorized registration of valuable letters for a 5¢ charge
Registration mark: lines, crosses, arrows, letters numerals or a combination engraved into the marginal area of the plates used in printing stamps with several colors to ascertain the degree to which these marks align with each other
Registration stamps: stamps issued for the payment of registration fees exclusively; some may be in the form of labels with a number written or printed on them
Registro: (Sp.) “Registered”, Columbia-Antioquia, 1896-99
Registry labels or stamps: U.S., authorized all Foreign Registered Matter to apply the label or stamp on all registered mail; July 1, 1888; use on foreign mail began May 1, 1856 with Great Britain
Registry markings: different shaped marks used to help in correctly registering the frame and vignette of bi-colored stamps; also known as “Arrow Marker.”
Reglement de compte: (Fr.) settling of account
Regno: (It.) kingdom
Regno d’Italia Fiume: Kingdom of Italy-Fiume; overprint on stamps of Italy, 1924
Regno d’Italia / Mbretnija Shqiptare: (It., Alb.) overprint on stamps of Italy for Albania, 1940
Regno d’Italia Trentino: overprint on stamps of Austria, Italian occupation; Italian Austria
Regno d’Italia Venezia Giulia: overprint on stamps of Austria, by Italy for the occupation of Trieste, 1918; Italian Austria
Regno Unito: (It.) United Kingdom, Great Britain
Reg.o: (It.) Reggio (Northern Italy) pre-adhesive postmark
Regomado: (Sp.) regummed
Regommé: (Fr.) regummed
Regrabado: (Sp.) reentry, re-engraved
Regravure: (Fr.) reentry, re-engraving
Regressive Die Essay: an essay taken from a transfer roll that has been partially cut away to remove any unwanted parts of the design
Regular issue: stamp issued for an indefinite period and quantity for ordinary use; also known as a definitive
Regummed (RG): 1: stamp with artificial, or fresh adhesive gum applied. 2: Nachgummiert (Ger.) , Regommé (Fr.) , Rigommato (It.), Regomado (Sp.)
Rehabilitada para el Servicio Publico: (Sp.) overprint on stamps of Honduras air mails to validate for ordinary postage
Re.He.: République Helvétique (Sw.) Swiss republic
Rehusado: (Sp.) refused, usually C.O.D. service
Reich: (Ger.) empire. Often used in the sense of “the” Empire, i.e., Germany
Reichenberg-Maffersdorf: Sudentenland local post, German occupation, 1938
Reichpost: (Ger.) inscription on stamps of Germany, imperial post, 1889-1901
Reifringstempel: (Ger.) hoop and ring cancel
Reihe: (Ger.) series, row of stamps
Reimpresion: (Sp.) reprint
Reimpresiune: (Rom.) reprint
Réimpression: (Fr.) reprint
Rein: (Nor.) clean
Reindeer mail: used in northern Scandinavia and Russia in the early 1900s to deliver mail
Reina: (Sp.) queen
Reinado: (Sp.) reign
Reine: (Fr.) queen
Reinero: (Ger.) “net receipts,” Deutsche Schiller Stiftung, label for donation to Schiller Foundation.Reino: (Sp.) kingdom
Reinosa: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937
Reino Unido: (Sp.) Great Britain, United Kingdom
Reinrtrag: (Ger.) Deutsche Schiller Stiftung, label for donation to Schiller Foundation
Reis: currency unit in Angola, Angra, Azores, Brazil, Portugal and colonies
Reisende Postekspedisjon: (Nor.) Traveling Post Office (TPO)
Reissue: an official reprinting of a stamp that was discontinued
Rejection markings: identification of flawed material range from hand-placed markings to automated markings; may be red grease pencil, black markers or spray, or slit coils
Rejete (projet): (Fr.) unadopted (design)
Rejilla: (Sp.) grill, lattice work, refers to early postmarks
Rejistro: (Sp.) “Registry” inscription on stamps of Colombia
Rejita: (Sp.) small cut, tear or split
Rejoined perforations: separated perforations that have been reattached by means of a hinge, gum or other chemical means
Reklamemarken: (Ger.) a non-denominated stamp created to advertise or commemorate a product or event; Poster stamps
Rekomando: (Czech.) registered letter
Rekommandere: (Nor.) register
Rekommandert: (Nor.) registered
Rekommandert brev: (Nor.) registered mail
Rekommenderas: (Swed.) registration for mail sent abroad from Sweden
Rekommenderat: (Swed.) registered
Rekommenderat brev: (Swed.) registered letter, registered mail
Rekommenderade brev: (Swed.) registered letters, registered mails
Rekommandiert: (Ger.) registered; also Einschreiben
Rekonstruksjon: (Nor.) reconstruction
Rekonstruktion: (Swed.) reconstruction
Reko-Zettel: (Ger.) Austrian registration label
Relais: inscription on nonpostal labels of Persia attached to railroad tickets to allow bearer to ride in the post wagon or mail coach between stops not covered by the railroads
Relax in Wisconsin: poster stamp with instructions on where to write
Release date: formal date that the issuing postal administration puts an item on public sale
Relief: 1: Normal reproduction of the design on a die, in reverse. 2: (Fr.) embossing
Relief printing: print from a printing base which is supposed to appear in color on stamps raised above the non-printing areas, and only the color-producing areas meet the paper at the moment of impression
Relieve: (Sp.) printing relief, embossing
Relievo, In Relievo: (It.) relief
Reli Post: private delivery firm based in the Netherlands Revenue stamp, side: roulettes, part perforated, silk and unwatermarked paper, 1887 definition
Reliure: (Fr.) binder
Remail: mail service sent to another country to be placed into international mail systems to save lower postage costs in effect in cooperating nation
Remainders: 1: stamps remaining on hand at postal administration after the issue has been discontinued 2: stamp collection, usually mounted in album(s) from which the most desirable items have been removed
Remanente di charnela: (Sp.) hinge remnant
Remarque: a small original drawing made by an artist in the margin of a print; seen in margins of federal duck stamps
Remboursemente: (Fr.) cash on delivery, COD
Rembrandt Press: used in the photogravure production of postage stamps by the Reserve Bank of Australia
Remita sus Cartas en Sobres Oblongos: (Sp.) handstamp “Send your messages in oblong envelopes.”
Remitente: (Sp.) sender
Remitida por Tren por Suspension de Vuelo: (Sp.) handstamp “Sent by train, owing to flight cancellation.”
Remolcador: (Sp.) tug, found on naval marks of the Civil war
Remote encoding facility: USPS term for 55 offices where images of envelopes were received and routing codes added electronically, used for handwritten addresses, etc which machines could not read at the time; started early 1990s, being phased out in 2001
Ren: (Dan., Swed) clean
Rena Test Stamp: self-adhesive test stamp of unknown origin
Renecke: town in the Transvaaal; 1900, June 23: local stamps overprinted V.R. during South-African war
Rendez Honneur aux Quattri Libertes: (Fr.) Honor the Four Freedoms, private overprint on stamps of Italy
Renfe: (Sp.) “Red Nacional de Ferrocarriles” Spanish National Railways
Renglon: (Sp.) written or printed line on stamps as in the “Republica Espanola” overprint of 1931
Rengravado: (Sp.) re-entry
Renta interior: (Sp.) internal revenue
Rentapostman: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Rentierschlittenpost: (Ger.) reindeer post
Renversé: (Fr.) inverted
Rep.: repaired
Repaired: 1: stamps or covers that have been altered or repaired to reinforce or to resemble an undamaged item; this can be the repair of a tear, changing of perforations, etc. 2: a corrected flaw in typographed or line-engraved printing 3: Repariert (Ger.) , Réparé (Fr.) , Riparato (It.) , Reparado (Sp.)
Repaired paper: term used for paper from the beginning or end of rolls in rotary printing, which has been joined together by overlapping
Repaired stamp: usually a fake and/or patched stamp to enhance its appearance for exhibition purposes
Reparacion: (Sp.) repair
Reparado: (Sp.) repaired
Reparasjon: (Nor.) repair
Reparation: (Dan., Swed) repair
Réparé: (Fr.) repaired
Reparerad: (Swed.) repaired
Repareret: (Dan.) repaired
Reparert: (Dan., Nor.) repaired
Repariert: (Ger.) repaired
Rep. de Cuba: inscription in center of stamp across the shield is a cinderella produced by unsuccessful revolutionaries in 1875
Rep. Dem. Allemande: (Fr.) German Democratic Republic
Rep. di S. Marino: (It.) San Marino
Reperforated: stamp that has been perforated anew to defraud the collector
Repter: (Hung.)airport
Repiquage: (Fr.) perforation altered or repaired
Rep. Italiana: (It.) Italy
Replacado: (Sp.) damaged stamps which have been repaired and affixed to a new paper backing
Replacement Value: the price a buyer expects to pay for an item based on catalogue value, advertised price or dealer quote
Replaquage: (Fr.) paper repair
Replicas: printed stamp reproductions were made as space fillers; usually printed in one color, mostly blue, for collectors to use to fill blank spaces in their albums
Reply coupon: international coupons, exchangeable in any nation of the Postal Union for single rate postage from that nation; also known as an International Reply Coupon, or IRC
Reply paid: envelopes, postcards and package labels with a special inscription that permits recipient to reply without paying the postage
Reply portion: the part of a reply paid postal card that is used for the response
Reply postcard: two postcards joined together, one for original message, other for recipient’s reply
Repoblika Malagasy: inscription on stamps of Madagascar; Malagasy Republic.
Repubblica Sociale Italiana Base Atlantica: (It.) overprint on stamps of Italy for use in Bordeaux, France from June 1940 to 1944
Repoeblik Indonesia: bogus labels by independence forces before Indonesia became a republic
Repoeblik Maloekoe Selatan: bogus labels for South Moluccas
Report: (Fr., Ger.) transfer
Reporte: (Sp.) transfer of the design of a stamp from the transfer roller to the printing plate
Repoussage: (Fr.) the knocking up of a low point in a printing plate from the back to bring it to the correct height for printing or retouching
Repp paper: ribbed paper with fine ribbing on the surface
Repr.: reprint
Reprint: 1: stamps printed from the original plates after the issue has become demonetized or obsolete; usually reprints have a distinguishing feature so that the difference can be seen 2: USPS uses term for a stamp with the same denomination and design as previously issued, not reproduced on the same plates. 3: Nachdruck (Ger.) , Réimpression (Fr.) , Ristampa (It.), eimpressión (Sp.) Reproductions: stamps made from a new plate to imitate the original issue as the U.S. Special Printing issue of 1875
Rep.Shqiptare: Albania
Rep Sociale Italiana: (It.) Italy, Italian Social Republic, 1944
Repter: (Hung.) airport
Reptil: (Sp.) reptile (thematic)
Repubblica Democratica Alemagna: (It.) East Germany (D.D.R.)
Repubblica Democratica Tedesca: (It.) East Germany (D.D.R.)
Repubblica di San Marino: (It.) San Marino
Repubblica Federale Alemagna: (It.) West Germany (B.R.D.)
Repubblica Federale Tedesca: (It.) West Germany (B.R.D.)
Repubblica Italiana: (It.) Italy
Repubblica Popolare Cinese: (It.) People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.)
Repubblica Sociale Italiana: Italian Social Republic; September 15, 1943: establishment of new government in northern Italy area occupied by the Germans.1944-45: stamps for German-occupied North Italy
Repub. Franc: France, French Colonies general issue; inscription on first stamps of France
Repub. Hiber: bogus S. Allan Taylor fantasy issue for Ireland
Republica, Repubblica, Republik, République: Republic
Republica: overprint on stamps during the royal period of Portugal, 1911-12
República de China: (Sp.) Republic of China
Republica Congo: overprint on Portuguese colonies for Purtuguese Congo
Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Republica de la N’Granada: inscription on stamps of Colombia for Cauca
Republica del Ecuador Servicio Aerea: surcharge “1 sucre, 1939,” triangular label prepared but never released
República Democrática de Alemania: (Sp.) East Germany (D.D.R.)
Republica de Palombia: stamps produced by a Belgian magazine
Republica Dominicana: (Sp.) Dominican Republic
Republica Espanola: (Sp.) Republic of Spain
Republica Espanola Timbre del Estado: (Sp.) overprint for fiscal use as a War Tax issue
República Federal de Alemania: (Sp.) West Germany (BR.D.)
Republica Guine: overprint on stamps of Macao, Portutuese Africa or Timor for Portuguese Guinea
Republica Inhambane: overprint on Portuguese colonies, Inhambane, 1913
Republica Mayor de Centro America Estado de El Salvador: (Sp.) Republic of the State of El Salvador
Republica Mocambique: Mozambique overprint
Republican: workers government of Spain during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-39
Republica Oriental de Uruguay: (Sp.) inscription on stamps of Uruguay, 1864-66
Republica Oriental del Uruguay: (Sp.) Uruguay, 1866-1961
Republica Peruana: (Sp.) Republic of Peru
Republica Populara Romina: inscription on stamps of Romania after 1948
Republica Portuguesa: Republic of Portugal
Republica Sociale Italiana: Italian Socialist Republic, Northern Italy state established by Germany, 1943
Republic Maluku Selatan: unrecognized stamps of South Moluccas
Republic of Botswana: overprint on stamps of Bechuanaland Protectorate, Botswana, 1966
Republic of Djibouti: 1977, June 27: first stamps, former French territory of Afars and Issas
Republic of Guinea: 1959, Jan. 5: first stamps issued, 1958,. Oct.: voted to leave the French Community. French Guinea
Republic of Moroc-Songhrati-Meads: reincarnation of Kingdom of Humanity, bogus
Republic of West Florida: Americans living in this area of Spanish West Florida proclaimed it as a republic in 1810, administered as part of Orleans Territory
Republiek Stellaland: Republic of Stellaland
Republiek van Suid-Afrika: (Afrik.) Republic of South Africa, 1961-71
Republik: (Dan., Swed) Republic
Republika Bosna i Hercegovina: inscription on Bosnia and Herzegovina stamps, 1993-95 for Muslim government in Sarajevo
Republika Hrvatska: (Croat) CroatiaRepublika Korce Shqipetare: “Republic of Korytza, Albania” French zone overprint on stamps of Albania, 1916; Epirus
Republika Malagasy: Republic of Malagasy
Republika NG. Pilipinas: Philippines, Japanese occupation, 1943
Republikansk: (Dan., Nor., Swed) Republican
Republika Popullore e Shqiiperise: Popular Republic of Albania
Republika Srpska: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serb Administration in Banja Luka
Republik China: (Ger.) Republic of China (Taiwan)
Republik Indonesia Serikat: Indonesia
Republikk: (Nor.) Republic
Republik Maluku Selatan: bogus triangular label made during early 1950s for South Moluccas, Indonesia
Republik Österreich: (Ger.) AustriaRepublique Arabe Sahraoui Democratique: inscription on illegal issue, reported to the UPU April 10, 2000 by Morocco, not valid for postage
Republique Arabe Unie-Syrie: United Arab Republic, Syria, 1958
Republique Autonome du Togo: Independent Republic of Togo
Republique Centrafricaine: Central African Republic
Republique d’Azerbaijan: Republic of Azerbaijan, 1919-22
République de Chine: (Fr.) Republic of China (Taiwan)
Republique de Cote d’Ivoire: (Fr.) Republic of Ivory Coast
Republique de Guinee: (Fr.) Republic of Guinea
Republique de Haute Volta: (Fr.) Republic of Upper Volta
Republique Democratique du Congo: (Fr.) Democratic Republic of Congo
Republique d’Haiti: (Fr.) Republic of Haiti
Republique du Cameroun: (Fr.) Republic of Cameroon
Republique du Congo: (Fr.) Republic of Congo
Republique du Dahomey: (Fr.) Republic of Dahomey
Republique du Gabonaise: (Fr.) Republic of Gabon
Republique du Mali: (Fr.) Republic of Mali
Republique du Niger: (Fr.) Republic of Niger
Republique Populaire du Benin: (Fr.) overprint/surcharge on air mail issues; People’s Republic of Benin
Republique du Semaj: Artistamp, James reversed
Republique du Senegal: (Fr.) Republic of Senegal
Republique du Tchad: (Fr.) Republic of Chad
Republique du Togo: (Fr.) Republic of Togo
Republique Française: (Fr.) Republic of France, French Colonies general issues
Republique Gabonaise: (Fr.) Republic of Gabon
Republique Georgienne: (Fr.) Republic of Georgia, now part of Russia
Republique Islamique de Mauritanie: (Fr.) Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Republique Gabonaise: (Fr.) Republic of Gabon
Republique Khmere: (Fr.) Republic of Cambodia
Republique Libanaise: (Fr.) Republic of Lebanon
Republique Malgache: (Fr.) Republic of Madagascar (Malagasy)
République Populaire de Chine: (Fr.) People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.)
Republique Rwandaise: (Fr.) Republic of Rwanda
Republique Syrienne: (Fr.) Republic of Syria
Republique Togolaise: (Fr.) Republic of Togo
Republique Tunisienne: (Fr.) Republic of Tunisia
Republique Uni du Cameroun / Republic of Cameroon: (Fr.) Cameroon
Repulo Posta: overprint on stamps of Hungary for air mail
Repülos osztagok: (Hung.) military aviation mail
Repülötér: (Hung.) airport
Repuqlika Shqiptare: error variety, B upside down, overprint on stamp (Sc. 182) of Allbania
Requena: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican,1937
Requete: (Sp.) Carlist fighting unit found on military markings during the Civil War
Requetes: (Sp.) Civil War charity stamps for the benefit of the Carlist forces
Reseau pneumatique: (Fr.) pneumatic post
Resellado: (Sp.) resealed, re-authorized
Resellado: (Sp.) 1: overprint on stamps of Venezuela to restore validity to demonetized stamps, 1900, 1937, 1943, and 1951 2: overprint on stamps of Ecuador as a control mark
Resello: (Sp.) overprint on demonetized stamps of Nicaragua to restore validity
Reserve: auction term meaning that the seller has the right to withhold the article from sale if the highest bid does not meet his estimate of what it should bring
Resetting: a new arrangements of cliches in a plate that produces a tete-beche layout
Reserveschutzgebot: (Ger.) protective reserve bid
Resguardo: (Sp.) registered letter acknowledgment receipt
Resistance: overprint on stamps of Syria for military semi-postal
Resmi: overprint/inscription, with crescent and star, on stamps of Turkey officials
Resort stamps: private stamps used to prepay postage from resorts in Cairns, Australia to destination
Respuesta: (Sp.) reply portion of a double postcard
Restant de stock: (Fr.) remainder
Restaurado: (Sp.) restored, repaired
Restauriert: (Ger.) restored, repaired
Restbeholdning: (Nor.) stock remainder
Restbestand: (Ger.) remainder stock
Restricted: “restricted” air mail stamps can only be used for airmail and are not valid for other postal or non-postal uses; Unrestricted
Restricted Delivery: requires a fee, which permits the delivery of an item of mail only to the addressee or to the addressee’s agent
Retail option: retail Postal Service customers can access delivery information by calling a toll-free number or via Internet inquiry; USPS term
Retardo: (Sp.) “Late” overprint/inscription for late fee charge in Spanish language nations
Rete: (It.) burelage, a fine overall network of dots or lines printed on the surface of stamps in addition to the stamps’ design. This is usually done to discourage counterfeiting
Rethymnon: district in Crete; Russian administration issued stamps May-June1899
Retocado: (Sp.) retouched
Retouch: 1: correction done by hand-engraving on the plate or cylinder 2: flaws corrected on photogravure stamps 3: repairs to a flaw that resulted from an alteration or repair
Retour: (Fr.) postal marking instruction to return the piece of mail
Retour à l’expedéditeur: (Fr.) return to sender
Retourbrief: (Ger.) inscription on stamps issued by Bavaria and Norway for use on mail returned to sender without any further charges
Retourbrief Kgl Oberamt: (Ger.) inscription for return letter stamps of Bavaria
Retourbrief Kgl Oberpostamt Regensburg: (Ger.) inscription for return letter stamps of Regensburg
Retourmarken: (Ger.) return to sender handstamp or seal
Retourstempel: (Ger.) return to sender handstamp or seal
Retourrezepisse: (Ger.) acknowledgment of receipt
Retraites: (Fr.) pensions; French Colonies revenue inscription
Retta: canceling device made of an elongated diamond of dots, used in Egypt and Sudan for rural district mail
Rettile: (It.) reptile (thematic)
Returmærke: (Dan.) return (mail) stamp
Returmärken: (Swed.) return (mail) postage stamp(s)
Returmerke(r): (Nor.) return (mail) postage stamp(s)
Return address: 1: element of a mailpiece that is usually placed in the upper left corner of the mailpiece to indicate the sender; indicates where the sender wants the mail returned if it is undeliverable and where the sender will pay any fee due for that mail. 2: Absendervermerk (Ger.)
Return card: term used for addresses on envelopes for return to sender purposes, also known as corner card
Returned by Messenger as Undeliverable: special delivery mail is entitled to one “special delivery” delivery, if no one available to receive mail, mail is returned to post office for next regular delivery
Returned mail: marking on mail indicating returned to sender for any reason
Return from Norfolk Islands: Pitcairn Islands, marking inhabitant’s return to the island
Returned letter stamp: a post office label or seal placed on a letter returned to sender because it was undeliverable for any reason
Return receipt: USPS mailing forms signed by the addressee of an article and mailed back to the sender as evidence of delivery
Return to Sender by censor: mail piece that was censored and returned when it was determined that it was addressed to an enemy nation
Retus: (Rom.) retouch
Retüsch: (Ger.) retouch
Retvendt stempel: (Dan.) perfectly placed cancellation
Retymno: Crete, Russian post office, 1899 Sc. 10-46 Crete
Reunion: Indian Ocean island, 400 miles east of Madagascar; currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1852, Jan.1: No.1, 15 centimes black blue, first stamps, Ile de la Réunion inscription, 1864-1940: served by packet-boats direct from Marseille or Aden, via Seychelles or Zanzibar, 1885-91: overprint / surcharge on stamps of French Colonies, 1892-1905: inscription on stamps of French Colonies, 1907-33: own stamps with RF, 1915: first semipostal stamp issued, 1931: first stamp, 1931-47: Reunion with “Postes,” 1937: first air mail stamp issued, 1943: overprint on stamps of Reunion “France Libre,” Free France, 1946, Mar.: ceased to be a colony, became an overseas Department of France, 1949-74: stamps of France surcharged with CFA, Colonies Francaises d’ Afrique, French African Colony, the currency in French African francs, 1947, Jan. 1: colony of Reunion became a part of the French Republic, 1975, Jan.1: surcharge changed to FCFA (French metropolitan franc) from CFA, replaced by stamps of France
Reus: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican, 1937
Re-use of postage stamps: Congress enacted legislation on July 16, 1862, making the re-use of U.S. postage stamps punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary
Revalidado: revalidation, overprint on stamps of Portugal
Revalidate: to restore validity after a stamp has been demonetized; usually by an overprint
Revalidated: restored to validity after being demonetized
Revalorizada 1975: 1975 overprint on stamp of Chile as surcharge
Revalued: a postal stationery piece with an additional indicium imprinted beside the original one that alters the total denomination. 1¢ postal card revalued to 2¢ January 1, 1952
Revell, Martin F.: postmaster, Annapolis, Md, 1844-49, issued Postmaster’s Provisional envelope
Revenue: overprint on British Honduras, 1899
Revenue Act of July 1, 1862: start of taxation of 28 categories including documentary articles and proprietary items to help fund the Union cause in the Civil War; simplified on Dec. 25, 1862 ( second Issue revenues) where any type of stamp could be used to indicate the prepayment of any tax
Revenue Division: APS term for exhibition classification to include revenue exhibits, history and special studies
Revenue proof: originally made from proof reading sheets by Butler, Carpenter Company
Revenue stamp: 1: stamp issued to pay various types of taxes, generally denominated in currency; some show exemption from tax such as tax-exempt government services. 2: some may be considered cinderellas; also called “Fiscals.” 3: U.S. Congress enacted law creating the second Federal issue of embossed revenue stamps in 1801. 4: Fiskalischemarke (Ger.) , Timbre Fiscal (Fr.),, Francobollo Fiscale (It.), Sello Fiscal (Sp.)
Revenue stamp, first: paper squares were embossed in hand presses and sold for tax-paid revenue use in Holland, 1579
Revenue stamp mutilator: In accordance with a circa 1915 Internal Revenue Department [on the War Tax Revenue Law], all revenue stamps to the value of ten cents or more had to be mutilated with three parallel incisions, cut through the stamp after being affixed to the document. This was in addition to stamping the same with the initials of the user and date of use. Commercial devices produced to meet this requirement are known as “revenue stamp mutilators.”
Revenue stamp, straight: perforated and unperforated stamps; 1887 definition
Revenue stamped paper: various items with stamped, inked impressions on the paper itself; used to underwrite the American Civil War (1865-83) and the Spanish-American War (1898-1902); usually found as bank checks and railway tickets
Revers: (Fr.) reverse
Reversed: a left/right mirror image, usually refers to a watermark
Reversed perforation: perforations applied to the back of the sheets, instead of, as normal, to the front
Reversed print: design visible on stamp back
Reversed watermark: due to paper inserted upside down, paper received inverted watermark; note the watermark should read correctly when viewed from the front of the stamp
Reverso: (Sp.) back, as opposed to the front of a philatelic object
Revisado: (Sp.) examined, censored
Revised Constitution 1959: Aden overprint for introduction of constitution
Revista: (Sp.) magazine, periodical
Reverso: (Sp.) reverse side, back
Revoyer: (Fr.) to send back, to return
Rey: (Sp.) king
Réznyomás: (Hung.) engraved
Rézvörös: (Hung.) copper-red (color) (also vörösréz)
RF: 1. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Playing Card, 2: France overprint on stamps for United States République Française (French Republic), authorized by U.S. authorities in North Africa and French Admiralty to permit French military to use American military air post; 1945, 3: rarity factor
RF, Rfr: Franc, currency unit in Rwanda
R.F.D.: Rural Free Delivery
RFV: Scott Catalog number prefix for Playing Card (D.W.I.)
RFW: Ralph F. Wurtz, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; Plate Finisher, Siderographer
RG: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Silver Tax. 2: Regummed. 3: Registrar General, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74
R.H.: 1: (Fr.) République D’Haiti (Republic of Haiti) postage dues, 1898 2: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Cigarette Tube 3: Receiving House
Rheatown, Tenn. Paid 5: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Rhiga Colonial Club Resort: cinderella for Cairns Colonial Club Resort, Australia
Rhineland Pfalz: Rhineland Palatinate
Rhineland Palatinate: French occupation of area of Germany; 1947: first French stamps in pfennig currency issued, 1948: first semi-postal stamp issued 1949: first commemorative stamp issued; now a state in Federal Republic of Germany
Rhein-Ruhr-Hilfe: overprint on semi-postal stamps of Germany
Rhode Island: 1: first federal issue revenue of United States,, July 1, 1798-Feb. 28, 1801. 2: supervisors’ seal revenue, March 2, 1799
Rhodes: Dodecanese Island, Aegean Islands, aka Rodi; 1845-1948: Austria, Great Britain, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Russia and Turkey had offices on Rhodes, 1852, Sept.: French post office opened, closed Sept. 1887, reopened Jan.1896, closed 1924, 1912- pre: Italians seized island, used stamps of Turkey, 1912: overprinted Rodi, 1912: No.1, 2 centesimi orange brown, overprint “Rodi” on stamps of Italy, 1916: first stamps without overprints, 1920: Turkey ceded group to Italy, 1934: first air mail, postage due stamps, 1943, Sept.: became part of Greece, 1943: reoccupied by German forces, first semi-postal stamps, 1944: overprint “Weihnachten” prepared locally for German military mail, but not authorized, 1945: liberated by Allied forces, 1945, June 11: stamps of Britain overprinted “M.E.F.” (Middle East Forces), when islands transferred to Greece, 1947, March 31: British post offices closed; stamps of Greece overprinted “S.D.D.” (Dodecanese Military Occupation), 1947-summer: stamps of Greece used
Rhodes: Aegean Islands; Interpostal Seals, 1880
Rhodesia: southeastern Africa, formerly Southern Rhodesia, aka British South Africa; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1967) 1890-1919: administered by the British South Africa Company, 1890: No.1, 1 penny black, 1896, May 22: stamps of Cape of Good Hope overprinted “British South Africa Company,” 1909: name of Rhodesia appeared as an overprint, 1910: Rhodesia as an inscription, 1923: divided and part became the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia 1924: balance became Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia, 1953, Sept. 3: Federation of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland formed from Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1954: first stamps as Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1961: postage due stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1964, Oct.: Southern Rhodesia adopted name of Rhodesia, 1965, May 17: separate issues for Rhodesia, 1965, June 17: first postage due stamps for Rhodesia, 1965, Nov. 11: unilaterally declared its independence, 1965, Dec. 8: first stamps as Rhodesia, not recognized as valid by Britain 1965-67: overprint on postage dues, 1978, Oct. 18: last issue as Rhodesia, 1980, April 18: Rhodesia became Zimbabwe; Zimbabwe
Rhodesia: overprint on stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of: Federation of Southern and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland Protectorate; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound 1953, Aug. 1: Federation of Southern, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland created, 1954, July 1: No.1, ½ pence vermillion, first stamp by the Federation, 1961, Apr.19: first postage due stamp, 1963, Dec. 31: Federation dissolved, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland issued own stamps, Southern Rhodesia used Federation stamps, 1964, Feb. 19: Southern Rhodesia issued own stamps, 1965, Dec.: first postage due stamps
Rhodesia-G.B. E.M.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Rhodesia, Northern: southern Africa, separated from Southern Rhodesia by the Zambezi River; 1895: used stamps of the British South Africa Company, 1895-1900: administered by North East Rhodesia, 1890s: mail from North West Rhodesia delivered by runners, 1895: placed under control of British South Africa Company, 1900: North East Rhodesia also used stamps of the British South Africa Company, overprinted “B.C.A.,” routed via British Central Africa, 1911: unified as Northern Rhodesia, 1923: part of the British Crown, 1924, Apr. 1: made a British protectorate, 1925, Apr.1: No.1, ½ penny dark green, first stamps issued, 1929: first postage due stamp. 1953: joined the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1954-63: used stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Federation, 1963, Dec. 10: separate issues resumed after Federation dissolved, 1964, Oct. 24: became Republic of Zambia; Rhodesia; Rhodesia, Southern; Rhodesia and Nyasaland and Zambia
Rhodesia, Southern: Africa, bordering on Bechuanaland and Mozambique; 1923, Oct.1: became British Crown Colony, 1924, April 1: first stamps issued, 1954-65: used stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Federation, 1964, Oct.: adopted name of Rhodesia
Rhodesie: (Fr.) Rhodesia
Rhodos: (Swed.) Rhodes
Rhonda & Swansea Bay: Wales railway local post
R.H./Official: Royal Household/Official overprint for use of staff at royal residences
R.H. Official: overprint of British official stamps, for use by Royal Household, 1902-04
Rhymney Railway: Wales railway local post
RI: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Potato Tax. 2: USPS abbreviation for Rhode Island. 3. international postal code for Indonesia
Rial: currency unit in Iran, Oman
Rialtas Sealdac na Héireann 1922: overprint on stamps of Great Britain for provincial government of Ireland, Irish Free State
Riau (Riouw) Archipeligo: two groups of islands off coast of Sumatra; WW II: occupied by Japan, 1954, Jan. 1: overprint “Riau” on stamps of Indonesia and the Netherlands Indies, required due to currency differences of the islands, 1965, Dec.: stamps withdrawn after revaluation of the rupiah, 1957: overprints in solid letters on stamps of Indonesia, Indonesia, 1954-60
RIB: ribbed surface paper
Ribadeo: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937
Ribbed: Giriffelt (Ger.) , Côtele (Fr.) , Scanalatura (It.) , Costillado (Sp.)
Ribbed paper: paper which shows fine parallel ridges on one or both sides of a stamp, aka Repp paper
Ribbed frame: varieties of encased postage with fine parallel lines on the silver side of the metal case
Ribbed gum: stamp adhesive with evenness changed into narrow, parallel strips to counteract paper curl
Ribbed paper: paper showing on the surface a continuous series of ribs or ridges
RIBH: horizontally ribbed paper
Ribraltar: British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers
RIBV: verically ribbed paper
Rice & Peck’s Express: operated via the New York & Erie Railroad (1841-61); used corner card of envelopes and labels
Rice paper: thin hard white paper; used for Salvador 1889 issue, special printing
Ricevitoria: (It.) post office
Ricevuta: (It.) receipt
Ricevuta di Imposizione: (It.) receipt of fee, tax.Rich & Weston’s Express: local express company serviced Plymouth, Mass., labels
Richardson, D.M.: Private die match proprietary stamps
Richardson Match Co.: Private die match proprietary stamps
Richmond Bureau: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Richmond Letter Courier: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Richmond, Texas Paid 5: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Richmond, Va.: occupied by British from May, 1781 until Dec. 1781
Richland: stamps produced from cigarette wrappers, bogus
Rich’s Express: local baggage and freight company, serviced Brooklyn, N.Y. and New York City, labels
Richwood’s Dispatch: fantasy local post, La Hoyt, Iowa, 1887
Ricketts & Hall: U.S. local post, Baltimore, Md., 1857
Ricketts index: research file of various philatelic material, also available as Ricketts United States Index; US Locals, Bibliography index; available from APRL; : APRL
Rickshaw: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Riddell, J. J.: postmaster, New Orleans, La., issued Postmaster’s Provisional adhesive and envelope
Ridged gum: uneven stamp adhesive due to use of a metal roller so that the gum was applied to the stamp paper in fine streams so that the gum dries in humps on the ridges
Riel: currency unit of Cambodia
Rift: (Dan., Nor.) tear
Riga: (It.) horizontal row
Right and Reverse: term that results from the stacking of printed stamps whose ink is not dry; the right-reverse impression occurs when the inked image is carried on the cylinder which prints the image on several following sheets on the wrong side
Rigi-Kaltbad: Switzerland hotel post, 1851-64
Rigi-Scheideck: Switzerland hotel post, 1868-80
Rigi-Staffel: Switzerland hotel post, 1878-79
Rigommato: (It.) regummed
Rigsbank skilling: currency unit in Denmark prior to 1875
Rigsdaler: currency unit in Iceland prior to 1876
Rijeka: name given to Fiume by Croations
Ríjen: (Czech.) October
Riksbrev: (Swed.) inland letters
Riksvapnet: (Swed.) national coat-of-arms
Rik(x)sdaler: currency unit in Sweden, 1858-74
Rik(x)sdaler Banco: currency unit in Sweden prior to 1858
Rilieve: (It.) embossing
Rimless CDS: no circle surrounding circular date stamp
Rin: currency unit in Japan. 1876-99
Rincon de la Victoria: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937-38
Ring: name given to band of seven stamp dealers accused of bid-rigging at stamp auctions in the U.S. and Europe, 2001
Ringbolt: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Tulagi Island, British Solomon Islands
Ringgit: currency unit in Malaysia
Ringgold, Georgia five cents: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Ring stamps: refers to Swedish early stamps depicting a circular ring
Ring’s Vegetable Ambrosia: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Ringtype: (Dan., Ger.) ring type numerical oblit cancellation
Rio de Oro: “River of Gold” Spanish territory in northwest coast of Africa, aka Western Sahara; currency: 100 centimos = 1 peseta 1885, Jan. 9: Spanish protectorate, administered from Canary Islands, 1901: used stamps of Spain, 1905: No.1, 1 centimo blue green, stamps first issued, 1924: combined with Saguiet el Hamra; renamed Spanish Sahara; Cabo Juby, Rio de Oro, Spanish Guinea and Spanish Sahara
Riogordo: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937-38
Rio Hacha: Magdalena
Rio Muni: west Africa; formerly Fernando Po and part of Spanish Guinea; currency: 100 centimos = 1 peseta 1959, July 30: overseas province of Spain, used stamps of Spanish Guinea, 1960, April 27: No.1, 25 centimos dull blue violet, colonial stamps of Spain inscribed “Rio Muni,” 1960: first semipostal stamp, 1968, Oct. 12: merged with Fernando Po, Eloby, Annobon and Corisco to become Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Rios 19: overprint on stamps of Ecuador; Los Rios provincial control mark, 1902
Riotinto: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937-38
Riouw: aka Riau-Lingga; south-east of Singapore, part of Netherlands East Indies; 1954: surcharge in Straits currency on stamps of Indonesia
Riparato: (It.) repaired
Ripcord cover: novelty cover from air force parachute personnel with a string under the stamp and instruction to “Pull rip-cord right and down,” symbolic of the parachute rip-cord
Ripon: local, Colombia, 1930-34
Ripoll: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937
Riporto: (It.) transfer
Riposte mark: computer-generated postage system with colorful indicia
Rippindale and District: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Ripple gum: a gum used in Germany to produce a non-curling effect
R.I.S.: Republik Indonesia Serikat; Indonesia overprint on stamps of Netherlands Indies, 1950
Riss: (Ger., Swed.) little tear
Ristampa: (It.) reprint
Riststempel: (Nor.) grid or bar oblit cancellation
Ritaglio: (It.) cut square
Ritcherdson’s Express: 1857?; local express company that serviced Missouri and Kansas territory, labels
Ritentivo: (It.) binder
Riticco: (It.) retouch
Riudor de Bages: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937
Riu-Kiu-Inseln: (Ger.) Ryukyu Islands
Rivadavias: Argentina stamps with design of Bernardino Rivadavia, issued in 1864-90
River Express Co.: 1894; mail express company that serviced Calif; issued corner card
Riverside & Arlington Railway Express: operated on electric trolleys,
Riverside, Calif., Express Stamp
River steamer mail: steamboat New Orleans carried first mail by steamer on Jan. 23, 1812 from New Orleans to Natchez
Rives: watermark seen on French-Area artist’s die proofs
Riyal: currency unit in Dubia (from 1966), Hejaz (from 1928), Qatar (from 1967), Saudi Arabia, (from 1960), Umm al Qiwain (from 1967), and Yemen
Rizeh (Rize): city in Russia, overprint on stamps of Russia, Offices in Turkish Empire, 1909-10, issued to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Russian post offices in the Turkish Empire
RJ: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Tobacco Sale Tax
RJA: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Narcotic Tax
RJL: Robert J. Little, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; Plate Finisher, Siderographer
RK: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Consular Service Fee. 2: auction abbreviation for topical rockets and space
RL: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Customs Fee. 2: (Fr.) Rayon Limitrophe (border radius) a reduced arte for towns within the border zone 3: (It.) Repubblica Ligure (Genoese Republic, Italy). 4. international postal code for Lebanon
R.L.B.: Returned Letter Branch
Rl. Plata F.: currency unit in Cuba, Philippines
R.L.S.: Returned Letter Section
RM: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Embossed Revenue Stamped Paper. 2: USPS abbreviation for room in addresses. 3: Reichsmark: currency unit in Germany
RMK: Republic of Mountainous Karabakh, not a UPU member
Rmnt: abbreviation for remnant
R.M.S.: 1: Railway Mail Service 2: Royal Mail Ship 3: Railway Mail Sorter (India)
RN: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Stamped paper
RNS: overprint on stamps of Bussahir, India use is questionable
RNWMP: Royal North West Mounted Police
RO: 1: auction abbreviation for Roosevelt topic. 2: Roumelie Orientale overprint on stamps of Turkey for Eastern Rumelia (Roumelia), 1880 3: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Match. 4. international postal code for Romania
Roadman’s Penny Post: local post, source unknown
Roavoamena: Madagascar local issue
Roberts & Co’s Express: local service between Philadelphia and Norristown, Pa
Robertsport: city in Liberia, registration inscription, 1893-1924
Robison & Co.: U. S. local post, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1855-56
Robotic Containerization System: USPS term for automatic handling of sorting and loading of trays of mail to containers or pallets for transportation
ROC: Republic of China (Taiwan)
Roche’s City Dispatch: U. S. local post, Wilmington, Del., 1850
Rochester: U.S. local post; Hoyt’s Letter Express
Rochester Parcel Delivery Co.: local delivery firm that serviced Rochester, N.Y., Parcel Stamp
Rocket flight: rocket pioneers placed souvenir cards or covers in their rockets; referred to as “Rocket mail,” astrophilatelists commemorate rocket flights by non-flown covers posted at the launch site or nearest postal facility to the launch date
Rocket mail: mail sent via rockets; first experiments took place in 1928 in Austria by Friedrich Schmiedl; many covers also have special labels affixed for the occasion
Rocket mail, first official: Stephen Smith flew a rocket with mail and a parcel enclosed on April 7, 1935 in Sikkim, India
Rocket mail stamp, first official: issued by the government of Cuba on Oct. 15, 1939 for the first experimental rocket flight in Havana
Rocket post: Raketenpost (Ger.) , Poste par Fusée (Fr.) , Posta per Razzo (It.) , Correo de Cohete (Sp.)
Rocket stamp: a private stamp or label to prepay charges to have a letter or card sent by rocket mail
Rocking-in: when the image of the transfer roller is moved to the printing plate during the line-engraving process
Rød: (Dan., Nor.) red (color)
Röd: (Swed.) red (color)
Roda: 1: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1871-82 2: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937
Roda de Ter: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican,1937
Rödakors: (Swed.) Red Cross
Rödakt: (Swed.) reddish (color)
Rödakt-blåakt lila: (Swed.) reddish – bluish-lilac (color)
Rödakt brun: (Swed.) reddish-brown (color)
Rödakt karmin: (Swed.) reddish-carmine (color)
Rödakt orange: (Swed.) reddish-orange (color)
Rödakt-orange – orange: (Swed.) reddish-orange – orange (color)
Rödakt-violett: (Swed.) reddish-violet (color)
Rodas: (Sp.) Rhodes
Rødbrun: (Dan.) red-brown (color)
Røde Halvmåne: (Dan., Nor.) Red Crescent
Røde Kors: (Dan., Nor.) Red Cross
R.O. Del Uruguay: Uruguay
Rodézia: (Hung.) Rhodesia
Rodézia (Dél): (Hung.) Southern Rhodesia
Rodgers Aerial Post: cross-country flight carried mail with privately printed stamps, 1911
Röd Halvmån: (Swed.) Red Crescent
Rød Halvmåne: (Nor.) Red Crescent
Rodhos: aka Rhodes
Rodi: Rhodes. Overprint/inscription on stamps of Italy, Aegean Islands Rhodes, Isle of Roles d’Equipage: ships personnel roster; French Colonies revenue inscription
Rodillo: (Sp.) roller
Rodillo de Propaganda: (Sp.) roller used for slogan postmarks
Rød Kors: (Nor.) Red Cross
Rødlig: (Dan.) reddish
Rødligblå: (Dan.) reddish-blue (color)
Rødligbrun: (Dan.) reddish-brown (color)
Rødliggul: (Dan.) reddish-yellow (color)
Rødliglilla: (Dan.) reddish-violet (color)
Rødligorange: (Dan.) reddish-orange (color)
Rødligpurpur: (Dan.) reddish-purple (color)
Rødligviolet: (Dan.) reddish-violet (color)
Rødorange: (Dan.) red-orange (color)
Rodosto: French post office opened Feb. 1872, closed Aug. 1876
Rödvin: (Swed.) wine red, claret (color)
Rødbrun: (Dan. Nor.) red-brown, maroon (color)
Rödbrun: (Swed.) red-brown, maroon (color), see Russet
Rødfiolett: (Nor.) red-violet (color)
Rødlig: (Dan., Nor.) reddish
Rødligblå: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-blue (color)
Rødligbrun: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-brown (color)
Rødligfiolett: (Nor.) reddish-violet (color)
Rødliggul: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-yellow (color)
Rødliglilla: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-violet (color)
Rødligoranjse: (Nor.) reddish-orange (color)
Rødligpurpur: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-purple (color)
Rödlila: (Swed.) red-lilac, muave (color)
Rödlila-rödakt lila: (Swed.) red-lilac – reddish-lilac (color)
Rødlilla: (Nor.) red-lilac, muave (color)
Röd-ljusröd: (Swed.) red-light red (color)
Röd-mattröd: (Swed.) red-dull red (color)
Rödorange: (Swed.) red-orangr (color)
Rödviolett: (Swed.) red-violet (color)
Roeber, H. & W.: Private die match proprietary stamps
Roeber, William: Private die match proprietary stamps
Roessler, A. C. (A.C.Roe): East Orange, N.J. cover dealer who designed, printed and sold many types of airmail stationery, cachets and etiquettes; prosecuted by the U.S. Post Office Department for unauthorized overprinting of U.S. stamps; also produced essays and bogus issues of several other nations
Rofté Mbreti 1467-1914: Albania handstamp for arrival of Prince William zu Wied on March 14, 1914
Roger’s Penny Post: U. S. local post and handstamp, Newark, N.J., 1856
Rohania: Romania
Rohovy Blok: (Czech.) corner block (of stamps)
Rohrpost: (Ger.) pneumatic post used in Germany, 1867; Austria 1873
Roi: (Fr.) king
Roido: (Sp.) “diente roido”; perforation pulled
Roil Mail: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Rojo: (Sp.) red (color)
Rojo Ladrillo: (Sp.) brick red color
Rojo vinoso: (Sp.) claret (color)
ROK: international postal code for South Korea
Rol: (Dut.) coil (stamp)
Roland Press P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Roles d’Equipage: ship’s personnel roster; French Colonies revenue inscription.Roleta: (Sp.) roulette
Roll: a coil of stamps
Rolle: (Ger.) coil (of stamps)
Roller-canceller: a canceling device used for periodicals and standard mail
Rollins Express: local firm that serviced Boston, Groveland and West Newbury, Mass., labels
Rollo de sellos: (Sp.) coil, roll of stamps
Roll of Distinguished Philatelists: founded by the Philatelic Congress of Great Britain in 1920, first signer was King George V
Rollstempel: (Ger.) roller hand cancel
Rom.: (It.) Romagna (Italy pre-adhesive postmark)
Romagna(e): made up of Italian provinces of Forli, Ravenna, Ferrara and Bologna; currency: 100 bajocchi = 1 scudo 1852, Jan. 1: stamps from Papal States, 1859, June 12: No.1, ½ bajocci black strawberry, issued own stamps as a provisional government, 1859, Oct. 12- March 1, 1860: bisects used, 1860, March 25: became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, 1862: Italian general issue stamps replaced local issues, 1870: became part of the province of Emilia; unified Kingdom of Italy; Roman States
Romagne: inscription on stamps of Romagna
Romana, Romina, Roumania: Romania
Romana Posta: bogus label, anti-communist issue
Romana, Zona de Occupatie: overprint on stamps of Hungary, Romanian Occupation
Romania: Arad
Romania: southeastern Europe, on Black Sea, aka Rumania, Roumania; currency: 40 parale = 1 piaster, 100 bani = 1 leu (1868) 1858, July: No.1, 27 parale black on rose, stamps were those of Moldavia, 1862, June 26: stamps of Moldavia and Walachia who combined as Romania, 1865-pre: stamps handstamped on paper, 1865, Jan.: No.1, 2 parale orange, first stamps issued as Romania, 1875, July 1: joined the U.P.U. 1881: kingdom under Carol I, first postage due stamp, 1895: first parcel post stamp, 1896, March 16: stamps of Romania overprinted in Turkish currency issued for Romanian ships, mail and stamp seized by Turkish police on May 25, PO closed, 1906, Jan. 14: first semipostal issued, 1915: first postal ta, postal tax due stamps, 1916: overprinted stamps of Bulgaria for occupation of Dobruja, 1917: occupation stamps of Austria and Germany surcharged, 1918, Dec.1: stamps of Hungary overprinted in Romanian currency used in Transylvania and Romania, 1919: stamps of Romania overprinted in Turkish currency issued for Romanian post offices in Turkish Empire, 1919, July: Banat Bacska issued stamps, then divided between Romania and Yugoslavia, 1919: Temesvar used overprinted stamps of Serbia; 1919, Aug. 20 Temesvar used overprinted stamps of Romania; then awarded to Romania and renamed Timisoara., 1919: Romanian occupation of Pokutia, stamps of Austria surcharged “C.M.T.” 1919, Nov. 20: Debrecen used stamps of Romania, then retained by Hungary and Romanian stamps withdrawn, 1919: Romania established a post office on board ship in Constantinople, Turkey, 1928: first air mail stamp, 1929: first official stamp, 1940, Dec.1: first air mail semipostal stamp issued, 1944, April: occupied by Russia, 1947, Dec.30: became People’s Republic of Romania
Romania – 1909 Romanian Aviation Week at Bucharest: the first Romanian aviation event was held in Bucharest during 24-31 October 1909; the French pioneer aviator and English Channel pilot, Louis Blériot (1872-1936), participated. A special postcard depicting Blériot and his monoplane and e inscribed “BLÉRIOT SI MONOPLANUL SAU” was issued for the occasion. The card exists with postage stamps cancelled by an undated postmark, but the dated cancel on the reverse evidences the card being posted on 7 November 1909, a week later than the aviation week events
Romania – 1919 French Military Flight to Greece and Turkey: on 6 September 1916, a French military plane at Bucharest on a good-will visit departed for Salonika (now Thessaloníki), Greece, and Smyrna (now Izmir), Turkey. Souvenir mail is recorded being carried on the flight
Romania – 1921 Bucharest-Paris Flight: on 31 October 1921, the French-owned C.F.R.N.A. (Cie. Franco-Roumaine de Navigation Aérienne) airline inaugurated the first Bucharest to Paris flight via Prague, Czechoslovakia, and Strasbourg, France. First flight covers exist for the Bucharest-Prague and Bucharest-Paris legs of the flight
Romania – 1922 Bucharest-Budapest Flight: on 21 September 1922, the French-owned C.F.R.N.A. (q.v.) airline inaugurated the first Bucharest to Budapest, Hungary, flight; first flight covers commemorating the event exist
Romania – 1922 Bucharest-Constantinople Flight: on 30 September 1922, the French-owned C.F.R.N.A. (q.v.) airline inaugurated the first Bucharest to Constantinople, Turkey, flight; first flight covers commemorating the event exist
Romania – 1923 Bucharest-Belgrade Flight: on 1 June 1923, the French-owned C.F.R.N.A. (q.v.) airline inaugurated the first Bucharest to Belgrade, Yugoslavia; flight; first flight covers commemorating the event exist
Romania – 1925 Bucharest International Flights: during 1925, the French-owned C.I.D.N.A. (Cie. Internationale de Navigation Aérienne) conducted a series of inaugural Flights to international destinations: 17 January, Bucharest to Paris via Prague, Czechoslovakia; 17 March, Bucharest to Constantinople, Turkey; 28 July, Bucharest to Vienna, Austria, and Budapest, Hungary; 28 September, survey flights for the Bucharest to Galati, Romania, and return routes; and 30 September, Bucharest to Warsaw, Poland, via Prague. First flight covers exist for the individual flights
Romania: Austrian occupation; 1916, June: Romania invaded Hungarian Transylvania, was defeated, 1917: Austro-Hungarian Army occupied Romania; issued stamps
Romania – Bistra Local Post: local post established in 1906, and issuing 2 and 6 Heller Stamps printed by Josef Hientz in Sebes-Alba and inscribed “S.R.V. / SECTION-MÜHLBACH / (fir tree) / Bistra-Post”, the “S.R.V.” representing “Siebenbürgiescher Karpatenverein” (Ger., Eng. Siebenburgen, Hung. Erdély, Rom. Transilvania (“Siebenburgen Carpathian Mountains Club”); the post ceased operations in 1914. Mühlbach (Rom. Sebes, Alba county) was the German name for the Romanian town ca. 5 miles south of the county capital Alba Iulia, and ca. 140 miles NW of Bucharest
Romania: Bulgarian occupation; 1916-17: Bulgaria invaded; stamps of Bulgaria overprinted including date “1916-1917.”
Romania – D.B.S.R. Local Railroad Post: the local railroad post formed the link between the Danube Steam Navigation Company (q.v.) mail boats calling at the commercial port of Czernawoda (Rom. Cernavoda, or Cerna-Voda), located in SE Romania on the Danube River WNW of the city of Constanta and ca. 105 miles E of Bucharest, and the Austrian Llyod services at Kustandje (Ger. Küstenja, Rom. Constanta), the Black Sea port ca. 25 miles E of Czernawoda. Local stamps issued in 1867 for the territory then belonging to Turk ey are inscribed “D.B.S.R. / Local-Post / KUSTENDIE & CZERNAWODA / 20 PARAS” (“D.B.S.R.”: “Danube Black Sea Railway”), and are found used on letters from either Kustandje or Czernowoda, paying the loose letter railroad rate; these covers are found as mixed franking with the stamps of Lombardy-Venetia
Romania: German occupation; 1917: Romania occupied by Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Germany; German occupation powers issued stamps of Germany overprinted “M.V.i.R.” Militär Verwaltung in Rumänien Military Administration of Romania, 1918: stamps of Germany overprinted “Gultig / 9. Armee,” a postal tax to maintain occupation army
Romanian Occupation of Hungary: 1919: first semi-postal, postage due stamps on stamps of Hungary, occupation of Banat Bacska, Debreczin, Temesvar and Transylvania
Romanian Occupation of Western Ukraine: stamps of Austria surcharged “C.M.T.” during occupation of Pokutia, 1919
Romanian Offices in Turkish Empire: 1896: No.1, 10 paras on 5 banis blue, general issues surcharged for use in Turkish Empire, but Turkey refused to let them be used, 1896, Mar. 1: agency opened on a Roumanian Steamship Co. ship, 1896, May 25: ship post office closed by Turkish police, 1919: overprint applied for use in Constantinople office
Romania Post Offices in Constantinople: 1896: general issues surcharged for use in Turkish Empire, but Turkey refused to let them be used, 1896, Mar. 1: agency opened on a Roumanian Steamship Co. ship, 1896, May 25: ship post office closed by Turkish police, 1919: overprint applied for use in Constantinople office
Romana Posta: bogus label, anti-communist issue, year unknown
Romania-Zone de Occupatie: overprint on stamps of Hungary for Romanian occupation
Roman States: also known as Papal States, located in central part of Italy with Rome as its capital, existed since 5th century; currency: 100 bajocchi = 1 scudo, 100 centesimi = 1 lira (1867) 1859: Romagna broke away to become part of Sardinia 1852, Jan. 1: No.1, ½ bajochi black violet, Roman States issued first stamp, 1870: Roman States incorporated into Kingdom of Italy, stamps of Italy used, now Vatican City
Rombos: (Sp.) lozenge
ROMC: (It.) Regio Uffizio Corrier Maggiore (Royal Office of the General Postmaster), pre-adhesive postmark
Romersk: (Nor.) Roman (adj.)
Romina: Romania, preceded by “R.P.” used on stamps of Romania 1954-64
Romney Hythe & Dymchurch Light Railway: stamp for conveyance of single post letter by railway; Great Britain
Ronda: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1936-37
Rood: (Dut.) red (color)
Roode Kruis: (Dut.) Red Cross inscription on Netherlands semi-postal
Roo’s: Australian stamps featuring the kangaroo, 1913-48
Roosevelt Nickel Invert: cinderella used in movie The Truth About Charlie a remake of Charade
Roosevelt proofs: during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt,1903, the Post Office made 85 albums of sets of die proofs of all U. S. postage stamps designs as gifts to various political figures
Roothill Emergency P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
ROPiT: (Russ.) Russian Company of Trade and Navigation; Russian Post Offices in Turkey; 1862, Nov.: first stamps, 1863, Jan. 1: first stamps issued, 1868, May: ROPiT agencies given status of Russian Post offices Abroad, 1909: overprinted stamps issued for Beirut, Dardanelles, Galata, Jaffa,Jerusalem, Kerassunde, Mount Athos, Mytilene, Rizeh, Salonica, Smyrna, and Trebizond, 1914, Sept. 30: Russian post offices on Turkish soil closed, 1919: some post offices reopened briefly; failed for lack of ships
Roquetes: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937
Rørpost: (Dan.) pneumatic post, pneumatic mail
Rørpostmærke: (Dan.) pneumatic post stamp, pneumatic mail stamp
Rosa: (Dan., Ger., It., Nor., Sp., Swed.) pink, rose (color)
Rosaakt: (Swed.) rose-tinged (color)
Rosabrun: (Swed.) rose-brown (color)
Rosace: the embossed or impressed device found on the loose flap of an envelope with a pattern of interlaced circles, the lines are sunk and the interweaving portions are in relief; in imitation of the old-fashioned wafer used in sealing
Rosafarvet: (Dan.) rose (color)
Rosarød: (Dan.) rose-red (color)
Rosaröd: (Swed.) rose-red (color)
Rosbach perforation: named after F. P. Rosbach perforating machine that applied gauge 12 1/2 to the U.S. 1919 issue
Rose Engine: device used to engrave complicated geometric designs by Perkins, Bacon & Co
Rose, J.B. & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Roseau: Fresh Water Lake, Layou River, Boiling Lake inscriptions, unissued Great Britain cinderellas by David Horry, 2001
Rosenrød: (Nor.) rose-red (color)
Roses: 1: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937 2: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Efate, New Hebrides Islands
Roses de Llobregat: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican1937
Rosette: city in Egypt; Interpostal Seals, 1871-82
Rosette crack: fine cracks radiating from a central point in irregular lines
Roskilde Flight: Denmark – Copenhagen-Roskilde Flight, 1914
Rossbach: perforating machine, used on a limited number of the 1918 issue, gauge 12 1/2, rejected by the USPOD in 1919
Ross Dependency: area of Antarctica under New Zealand administration; 1923, July 30: claimed by Great Britain on behalf of New Zealand, 1908: stamps of New Zealand overprinted “King Edward VII Land,” 1910-12: stamps of New Zealand overprinted “Victoria Land,”1957, Jan. 11: No.1, 3 pence dark blue, stamp first issued; New Zealand
Rossija: Russia, a former republic of the Soviet Union, 1991-
Rosso: (It.) red (color)
Rosso di Mattone: (It.) brick red (color)
Rosswein: 1: Rosswein, German courier local post, 1893 2: local post, German Democratic Republic, 1946
Rossyeny: town in Lithuania, local provisional, 1919
Rost: (Swed.) rust
Rostbraun: (Ger.) rust (color)
Rostbrun: (Swed.) rust-brown (color)
Rostfläcker: (Swed.) rust blemish, blot, spot, stain
Rostfleckig: (Ger.) foxed, rust spots, tropical stain
Rostnummernstempel: (Ger.) grill and numeral cancel
Rostock: city in Germany local post, Courier, 1896-1900
Rostorange: (Swed.) rust-orange (color)
Rostov: city in Russia, aka Rostof; 1871-91: local post, Russian Zemstvo, 1918-19: stamps were surcharges on Russian stamps
Rosu: (Rom.) red (color)
Rosu-aprins: (Rom.) bright red, fire-red (color)
Rosu-caramiziu: (Rom.) brick-red (color)
Rosu-carmin: (Rom.) carmine-red (color)
Rosu-carne: (Rom.) flesh (color)
Rosu-lila: (Rom.) lilac-red (color), Visiniu-putred
Rosu-purpuriu: (Rom.) purplish rose, geranium (color)
Rosu-sînge: (Rom.) blood-red (color)
Rosu-violet: (Rom.) violet-red, lilac-red (color)
Rot: (Ger.) red (color)
Rotacni Ocelotisk: (Czech.) line engraving – rotary print
Rotacni Ocelotisk Kombinovany s Rastrovym Hlubotiskem: (Czech.) line engraving – rotary printing in combination with photo engraving
Rotary cancel: cancellation die mounted on a revolving drum, soemtimes with a self-inking device, to obliterate stamps
Rotary coil end strip: a leader and end strip was added to the roll with information re the face value and number of stamps
Rotary International-Convention Wien 1932: overprint on stamps of Austria semi-postal, 1932
Rotary perforations: a perforation applied by a perforating wheel that has a grinding motion; usually results in rougher perforations and may be slightly distorted in shape
Rotary Perforator: has wheels of perforating pins that rotate on a central axle or shaft
Rotary plates: flat plates are bent to fit the round cylinders of the rotary printing presses
Rotary press: uses joined, curved printing plates that print on continuous rolls (webs) of paper
Rotary press stamps: stamps printed from curved plates as compared to stamps printed from flat plates on a flat bed press. They will be slightly longer or wider than flat press stamps
Rotary printing: 1: printing process where pressure is applied by an impression cylinder to the paper against the printing cylinder. 2: impresion rotativa (Sp.) , impression par cylindre (Fr.) , stampa rotativa (It.) , walzendruck (Ger.)
Rotary rouletting: rouletting applied by wheels rolled over the paper vs to blades that descend and pierce the paper
Rotat. aetztiefdruck: (Ger.) rotogravure
Rotation number: the number applied to a sheet for use on checking the sheets stamp paper
Rotationsdruck: (Ger.) rotary printing
Rotationsptressar: (Swed.) rotary presses
Rotes Kreuz: (Ger.) Red Cross
Roto: (Sp.) broken
Rotocalco: (It.) photogravure, intaglio
Rotogravure: rotary photogravure, where an engraved plate is made by photographic means and printed on a rotary press; also known as photogravure
Rotolo: (It.) coil (of stamps)
Rotto: (It.) broken
Rött påtryck: (Swed.) red surcharge
Rotura: (Sp.) crack, tear, break, split
Rouad: warship cancel, 1915
Rouad, Ile: off the coast of Syria, 1916, Jan. 12: French post office issued stamps of the French Offices in the Levant overprinted “Ile Rouad.”
Rouble: currency unit in Belarus, Russia
Rouen Aviation Club: France, local, 1922
Rouge: (Fr.) red
Rough perforation: Perkins, Bacon and Co. perforating machine where the holes are cut out clean with bits of paper adhering, leaves jagged perforated holes
Rouleau de timbres: (Fr.) coil (stamp)
Roulette: 1: perforation consisting of short knife dash-like cuts; many forms exist 2: durchstich (Ger.), perçage (Fr.), feratura (It.), corte de lineas (Sp.)
Roulette de timbres: (Fr.) coil stamps gathered in a series of rings or spirals
Rouletted in color: notched rules are put between the cliches forming the plate from which the stamps are printed, and these rules being inked with the plate, the edges of which are colored
Rouletting: the cutting of paper between stamps in order to make the separation of the stamps easier; in perforations, paper is actually removed from the sheet in the punched holes, but rouletting creates the appearance of a series of dashes
Roumania: Romania
Roumanie: (Fr.) Romania
Roumelie Orientale: overprint on stamps of Turkey for Eastern Rumelia, 1880-84
Round gum: the shape of the ends of the gum on flaps of U.S. envelopes; in 1876, the shape was changed from square to round
Round trip cover: cover flown both ways on a round trip without readdressing
Routage: (Fr.) sorting operations
Route: a course laid out for a USPS employee or contractor carrier in the performance of deliver duties; can also apply to Railroad Route, etc
Route agents: authorized to receive and deliver mail on his route, term used about 1839
Route designations, routing: UPU regulation in the late 1880s stating that mail to be expedited by most rapid means available, any surcharge would be collected upon receipt
Routing code symbols: USPS term for labels on a piece of mail when delivered, labels marked “C” all items in bundle for same city; “D” all items in bundle for same five-digit ZIP code area; “F” for all items in bundle for same address; “S” all items destined for same state; “3” all items in bundle for the same area based bon first three digits of Zip code
Rovescio: (It.) reverse, back
Rovno: city in the Ukraine, local overprint, 1993
Row: a horizontal strip of stamps; vertical strip is called column, or vertical row
Royal Air Force: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1993, 1998
Royal and Imperial Society for Navigation by Steamship: formed in1 839 to carry mail on the Danube and its tributaries
Royal Birth 21 June 1982: 1982 Aitutaki overprint
Royal Blue: bleu roi (Fr.) ; konigsblau (Ger.) ; assurro reale (It.) ; azul real (Sp.)
Royal cipher labels: originally printed in England in 1701, in same size shape and color of the Penny Black; used as tax stamps affixed by glue to official documents; prior to their use, duty stamps were embossed directly on important documents, but these disappeared with time
Royal Co. Island: bogus issue using frame of St. Vincent stamp
Royal Court Post Office: a post office that travels with the United Kingdom’s royalty; contains special cancels,date stamps, etc
Royal Family Birthday, Anniversary: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1991
Royal Great Britain Hanoverian Post Office: 1814; independent of any British involvement, King of England was also King of Hanover
Royal Hudson: local courier label, British Columbia, Canada, 1976
Royalist Bulgarian Government in Exile: Bulgarian freedom movement
Royal Mail Steam Packet Co.: Caribbean shipping company 10¢ stamp, used on steamers between West Indies and England, 1875-80
Royal Navy: envelope with this heading, Great Britain, known as a “Privilege, Honour, Blue or Green” envelope, permits service people to sign that correspondence in the envelope refers to nothing but family matters
Royal Niger Company: firm used British stamps, cancelled at their offices at Akassa, Abutshi, Burutu and Lokoja, 1886-December 21, 1899
Royal Philatelic Society: founded in 1869, King George V was president in 1896; formerly the Philatelic Society
Royalty stamps: stamps that indicates that a royalty fee has been paid, may or may not be denominated
Royal Train R.P.O.: postmark used for visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth of England on June 9, 1939
Royal Visit: 1: 1992 Aitutaki overprint. 2: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1953, 1966
Royal Wedding: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1981, 1986
Royaume: (Fr.) kingdom
Royaume de Burundi: July 1, 1962: overprint on stamps of Ruanda-Urundi; Burundi
Royaume de Cambodge: Kingdom of Cambodia
Royaume d’Egypte: Kingdom of Egypt
Royaume de l’Arabie Soudite: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Royaume de Maroc: Morocco
Royaume des Cieux: Belgian fantasy
Royaume de Yemen: Yemen
Royaume du Burundi: Burundi
Royaume du Cambodge: Cambodia
Royaume du Laos: Laos
Royaume Uni: (Fr.) United Kingdom (U.K.)
Roz: (Rom.) rose, pink (color)
Roz-anilina: (Rom.) aniline-rose (color)
Roz-carmin: (Rom.) carmine-rose (color)
Rozoj, Insulo de la: bogus issue
Roz-portocaliu: (Rom.) orange-rose (color)
Rózsa: (Hung.) rose (color)
Rózsaszin: (Hung.) pink (color)
Rózsabarna: (Hung.) rose-brown (color)
Rózsaszsinu: (Hung.) rose-colored
Roz-somon: (Rom.) salmon (color)
Roz-violet: (Rom.) violet-rose (color)
RP: 1: currency unit in Liechtenstein, Switzerland 2: rocket posts. 3. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Canned Fruit. 4. international postal code for the Philippines
Rp: Rupiah, currency unit in Indonesia
RPA: (Sp.) República Popular Angola, cancel used by Cuban troops in Angola, Jan. 1985
R.P.E. Shiqperise: (Alb.) Albania
RPF: “Reichpfennig” overprint on stamps of Luxembourg, German Occupation, 1940
RPK: handstamp on Cambodian stamps for Republic of Kampuchea
RPO: Railway Post Office
R.P.Romina: Republica Populara Romina; Popular Republic of Romania; overprint on stamps of Romania
RPSC: Royal Philatelic Society of Canada
RPSL: Royal Philatelic Society, London
RQ: Scott Catalog number prefix for Unemployment Insurance (Ryukyu)
R.R. 1: Germany overprint for Rhine Republic. 2: auction abbreviation for railroad, topical
R.R. Poste Coloniali Italiane: (It.) Royal Italian colonial posts
R.R. Poste Italiane / Comune de Campione: Campione d’Italia
RRT: right (side)
RS: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Medicine
RSA: 1: Republic of South Africa. 2: international postal code for South Africa. 3. rubber stamp used to address the envelope
RSC: rubber stamp cachet
RSFSR: Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
R.S.I.: (It.) Repubblica di San Marino (Italian Social Republic) created in 1943
R.S.M.: Repubblica di San Marino (Republic of San Marino), 1949-51
RSO: 1: Regional Security Officer, U.S. marking on covers to indicate envelope was examined and was determined not to have anthrax 2: Railway Sorting or Sub-Office
RT: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Perfumery
R.T.R.P.: (Pol.) Provisional Government, Polish Republic
R.T.S.: Return to Sender
RTV: U.S. Revenue Trailer Permit. Scott catalog number prefix to identify stamps other than standard postage
RU: 1. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Playing Card. 2. international postal code for Russia
RUA: overprint on stamps of Syria, United Arab Republic, 1958
Ruanda: overprint on stamps of Congo for German East Africa
Ruanda-Urundi: central Africa, part of German East Africa, aka Belgian East Africa; currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1916-pre: ruled by German East Africa, 1916: Belgian occupation stamps, French, Flemish and German overprints on stamps of Belgian Congo, 1918: first semipostal stamp, 1924, Dec.1: mandated to Belgium by League of Nations; No.1, 5 centimes orange yellow, stamps of Belgian overprinted “Ruanda / Urundi”; first postage due stamp, 1925: semipostal stamps of Belgian Congo overprinted “Ruanda-Urundi,” 1931: first stamps inscribed “Ruanda-Urundi,” 1946, Dec. 13: United Nations Trust Territory, 1962, July 1: country divided; new stamps for Urundi as the Republic of Burundi and Ruanda as the Republic of Rwanda; German East Africa
Rub: surface damage due to abrasion, erasure of a cancel, or other unwanted mark
Rubber stamp address: address applied to a cover using a rubber stamp
Rubber stamp cachet: cachet applied to a cover with a rubber stamp
Rubezahls Reich: German equivalent of Rip Van Winkle’s Kingdom
Rubi: city in Spain; Spanish civil war local, Republican, 1937
Rubinrød: (Nor.) ruby-red (color)
Ruble: currency unit in many Russian language countries
Rublis: currency unit in Latvia until 1923
Ruby: (British) Type size in printing
Ruch: specialized Poland catalog
Rückdatiert: (Ger.) backdated
Rückscheinmarke: (Ger.) stamp issued as a prepayment fee as an acknowledgment of receipt of a registered package
Rückseite: (Ger.) back (as opposed to the front of a philatelic object)
Rückseitig: (Ger.) back, as opposed to the front of a philatelic object
Rücksteitiger-Stemple: (Ger.) backstamp; postmark applied to back of incoming mail to show date and time of receipt at the receiving post office
R.U.D.P.: (It.) Regio Ufficio della Posta (Royal Post Offiice-Lombardy) pre-adhesive postmark
Rudy: (Czech.) crimson , dark red (color)
Rue: overprint on stamps of Ecuador as a control mark
Rueda de Carreta: (Sp.) cart-wheel, refers to 1858-73 postmark shaped like a wheel
Ruffich – Polen: Russisch-Polen.Rufiyaa: currency unit in Maldives
Ruhleben: British prisoner camp stamps from Germany, 1915
Ruhnu: bogus, Russian area, not valid for postage
Ruhrgebiet: (Ger.) Ruhr area in Germany
Ruled feint: paper with pale blue lines as a writing guide; used for printing the 1887 stamps of Mexico and the 1919 Latvian emergency stamps
Ruled lines: blue ink lines on the face of an envelope to guide the person writing the address; introduced in 1870 and discontinued in 1872
Ruleteado: (Sp.) rouletted
Rulle(r): (Swed.) coil stamp(s)
Rullemærke(r): (Dan.) coil stamp(s)
Rumænien: (Dan.) Romania
Rumænsk: (Dan.) Romanian
Rumæniensk Post i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) Romanian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire (Levant)
Rumænsk Post i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) Romanian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire (Levant)
Rumania: Romania
Rumanien: 1. overprint on stamps of Germany, German occupation of Romania, 1917. 2. (Nor.) Romania (Roumania)
Rumänien: (Swed.) Romania (Roumania)
Rumansk: (Nor.) Romania (Roumania)
Rumänsk: (Swed.) Romanian (Roumanian)
Rumberg: Sudentenland local post, aka Rumbark, 1938
Rumelka: (Czech.) vermilion (color)
Rumford Chemical Works: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Rumunsko: (Czech.) Romania
Rumunsky: (Czech.) Romanian
Run: faded color usually due to fugitive ink becoming damp
Runderoth: city in Germany, local post 1945
Rundsendezirkel: (Ger.) circuits issued by (stamp) clubs and organizations
Runeberg: (Fin.) local post for use on steamships carrying mail, late 1800s
Running Chicken: Waterbury, MA, cancel depicting three running chickens
Running Up the Bidder: the practice to artificially create higher realizations for an auction lot by “accepting” bids from non-existent bidders; also known as “Bidding Against the Ceiling,” “Bidding Against the Curtains,” and “Ghost Bidder.”
Rupee: currency unit in many countries; Aden (to 1951); Afghanistan, Bahrain, British East Africa, British Indian Ocean territory, Burma, Ceylon, German East Africa, Indian Native States, Iraq (to 1908), Kuwait, Maldive Islands, Mauritius, Mesopotamia, Muscat, Nepal, Pakistan, Portuguese Timor, Seychelles, Somaliland Protectorate (to 1951); Tibet (to 1933); Zanzibar (to 1908)
Rupee Afghani: currency unit in Afghanistan
Rupee Kabuli: currency unit in Afghanistan
Rupia: currency unit in Portuguese India
Rupiah: currency unit in Indonesia
Rupie: (Rupee) currency unit in German East Africa
Rups: Donald Evans issue, America; Evans, Donald
Rural carrier: a USPS employee assigned to deliver and collect all mail classes
Rural Couriers Society: private post operator in New Zealand who uses own postage stamps
Rural Free Delivery (RFD): begun Oct. 1,1896, brought daily mail delivery to residents living outside urban areas
RUS: precedes the country code for Russia, such as Moscow, RUS-195426
Rusa, rusesc: (Rom.) Russia, Russian (adj.)
Rush this Message to My Boy: label for mail addressed to US Forces in France, 1917-18
Rusia: (Sp.) Russia
Rusko: (Czech.) Russia
Rusky: (Czech.) Russian
Rusland: (Dan., Ger.) Russia
Russell & Co.’s Express: 1866, mail and parcel serviced Boston, Bradford and Haverhill, Mass., labels
Russell & Majors: William H. Russell and Alexander Majors, operated express service at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas territory in1855; joined by William B. Waddell forming Russell, Major & Waddells
Russell, E. T.: Private die match proprietary stamps
Russell, Morgan & Co.: U.S. private die playing card stamp
Russell, Sayward & Co.’s Express: parcel firm serviced Boston, Bradford and Haverhill, Mass., labels
Russell’s 8th Ave. Post Office: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1854-58
Russell, William H.: operated the Central Overland California and Pike’s Peak courier service from Missouri River to San Francisco, April 3, 1860
Russet: (Swed.) red-brown (color), see Rödbrun
Russia: eastern Europe and northern Asia; name prior to 1917 Russian revolution; aka Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.); currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble 17th century: Yamskoi Prikaz, postcoachmen’s office, recruited postmen for the mail-coaches, 19th century: had more than 458 post offices with 5,000 officials, 1809-Dec. 1917: Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire, 1857: No.1, 10 kopecks brown & blue, first stamp, 1862-1901:Wenden, town in Russian province of Livonia, then called Vidzeme in Latvia, issued own stamps, 1857, Dec. 10: first stamps for Russian Empire, known as the Arms type 1865: local governments issued Zemstov issues, ended in 1917, 1870: Russian post offices opened in Kalgan, Peking, Tientsin, and Urga, 1874, July 1: joined the U.P.U., 1897: post offices opened in Chefoo and Shanghai, 1899: special overprinted issues used in foreign offices, 1905: first semipostal stamp, 1917-23: Russian Revolution, formed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Ukraine, issued their own stamps, 1918:, Jan. stamps issued by new central government, Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, 1918: stamps of Russia surcharged under German occupation of Tartu, Estonia,1918: South Russia; Cossack government set up in Don Republic, 1918-20: Civil Wars between anti-Bolsheviks and the new government, 1918, Nov.: Siberia; Admiral Kolchak took over area, issued surcharges on stamps of Russia, resigned on Jan. 4, 1920, 1919, March 4: Central Lithuania issued own stamps when occupied by Bolshevik troops, retaken by Polish Army April 20, 1919, 1919: stamps of Finland overprinted “Aunus,” Finnish name for Olonets, town in Russia, 1919, Oct.: South Russia; stamps overprinted by Cossack Government in Kuban, 1919, Jan.: South Russia; provisional government, issued its own stamps, 1919, April: South Russia; General Denikin, issued own stamps, 1919, Aug.1-Nov. 1919: Army of the Northwest, led by Gen. Yudenich, overprinted stamps of Russia, 1919, Sept.-Dec. 1919: Army of the North, led by General Rodzianko; stamps issued, 1919, Oct.: Western Army; overprint on stamps of Latvia; 1919, Nov.: Western Army; overprint on stamps of Russia, 1920, Jan. 20-Oct. 21: Siberia; Trans-Baikal province established White Russian regime, surcharge on four stamps of Russia, 1920, Feb.: Amur Province; People’s Revolutionary Committee issued stamps 1920, ended with start of the Far Eastern Republic in Sept. 1920, 1920, April 4: South Russia; General Denikin resigned his command to General Wrangel, 1920, Sept.: Far Eastern Republic; overprint on stamps of Russia, annexed to Soviet Russia Nov. 1922; 1920, Oct. 20: Central Lithuania stamps issued after Polish Army seized area, 1920: South Russia; Cossack stamps from Kuban and Don stopped, 1921, July: Priamur and Maritime Provinces; stamps for Japanese-backed White Russian provisional government that operated May 21 1921, Oct. 25, 1922; 1922: first air mail stamp, 1923, Jan.: Eastern Siberia; due to currency differences, special surcharged stamps used, 1923, Aug. 19: first stamp issued as Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1924: first postage due stamp, 1939, Sept. 17: Russia invaded Poland, eastern Poland used Russian postal system, 1940, Aug.: Central Lithuania put into Soviet Union, issued Russian stamps, 1941, June: Germany invaded Russia, 1941, Nov. 4: stamps of Germany overprinted “Ostland” (Eastern Lands) and “Ukraine,” 1945: Russia used own stamps and issued stamps for the Russian-occupied provinces of East Germany, 1991, Dec. 12; last stamp issued as Soviet Union, 1991, Dec. 26: Soviet Union broke up, formed the Commonwealth of Independent States 1991: new stamps mostly overprints / surcharges of previously issued stamps, 1992-93: postal administration of St. Petersburg issued own surcharged / overprinted stamps, as did many other local regional authorities; Amur, Central Lithuania, Siberia, Eastern, Far Eastern Republic, North West Russia, Priamur and Maritime Provinces, Siberia, South Russia, Trans-Baikal Province, Wenden, and Zemstvos
Russia, Army of the North: aka North West Russia; 1919, Aug.1: stamps of Russia inscribed “OKCA” Special Corps, Army of the North, for use in the Baltic area, 1919, Sept.:No.1, 5 kopecks brown-violet, Northern Army captured Pskov, Gdov and Yaurburg, issued own stamps, 1919, Oct.: stamps of Latvia overprinted for Riga, 1919, Nov.: “OKCA” stamps of Russia withdrawn, A.B, Amur
Russia, Army of the Northwest: 1919, Aug.1: No.1, 2 kopecks green
Russia, Finnish Occupation: 1919: stamps of Finland overprinted “Aunus,” Finnish name for Olonets, a Russian town. 1941: stamps of Finland overprinted “ITA – Karjala SOF. Hallinto” for Russian territory of Eastern Karelia under Finnish military government
Russia, German Occupation: Russian Occupation of Germany
Russian Dominion of Poland: 1860: Polish postage used on letters within Polish territory to Russia, 1865: used stamps of Russia, 1918: Polish Expeditionary Force used Russian stamps with a surcharge
Russian Dominion of Poland: 1860: Polish postage used on letters within Polish territory to Russia, 1865: used stamps of Russia, 1918: Polish Expeditionary Force used Russian stamps with a surcharge
Russian Embassy Post office: German surcharge on Russian consular fee stamps, 1922
Russian Empire, Finland: Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire; 1856: No.1, 5 kopecks blue, 1917, Dec.: Finland declared its independence; Finland
Russian Occupation of Crete: 1899: district of Rethymnon issued provisional stamps
Russian Occupation of Germany: 1945: stamps inscribed “Stadt Berlin” city of Berlin for Berlin-Brandenburg, 1945: stamps and semipostals inscribed “Mecklenburg Vorpommern” for Mecklenburg, 1945: stamps inscribed “Provinz Sachsen” for the province of Saxony, 1945: semipostal issued for West Saxony (Leipzig), 1945: stamps inscribed “Thuringen” for Thuringia issued, 1945, June 23: stamps issued for East Saxony, withdrawn on day of issue, Russian inscription for postage removed, 1946, Jan. 19: semipostals issued for Saxony, 1946, Feb. 6: East Saxony semipostal stamps issued, 1946, Mar. 30: semipostal for Thuringia issued, 1948, June: mark revalued; provisional overprint with city and town names and post office / zones numerals, 1948, July 3: stamps of Germany overprinted “Sowjetische Besatzungs Zone.”
Russian Occupation of Korea: currency: 100 chon = 1 won (1962) stamps of Japan used, 1946, Mar. 12: – 1955: No.1, 20 chon red, stamps issued for North Korea, land north of the 38th parallel, 1948, Sep. 9: Democratic People’s Republic of North Korea established; Korea Democratic Peoples Republic
Russian Occupation of Latvia: 1919: handstamp on stamps of Latvia issued at Mitau by West Russian Army commanded by Col. Bermondt-Avalov, 1940: used stamps of Soviet Latvia inscribed “Latvijas PSR.”
Russian Occupation of Lithuania: 1940: stamps of Lithuania overprinted “LTSR 1940 VII 21” Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic July 21, 1940
Russian Offices in China: currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1917) 1899-1920: stamps of Russia overprinted / surcharged for China (Cathay)
Russian Offices in Turkish Empire: currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble, 40 paras = 1 piaster (1900) 1862, Nov.: used stamps of Russia, 1863, Jan. 1: No.1, 6 kopeck blue, first stamp issued, 1900: stamps of Russia overprinted / surcharged for Levant (Turkish Empire), 1923, Oct. 27: foreign post offices closed
Russian Post Offices in Turkey: 1913: first commemorative stamp
Russian Post Offices Abroad: 1863-1913: stamps of Russia overprinted / surcharged for Levant (Turkish Empire), 1899-1920: stamps of Russia overprinted / surcharged for China (Cathay)
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic: name prior to Aug. 19, 1923; Russia
Russian Turkestan: 1917-18: stamps of Russia surcharged 25 kopecks and 1 ruble are fraudulent
Russian Zone: plus American and British occupying powers 1946-48: one issue, overprinted with pattern of posthorns, for occupation of Germany 1948-49: “Deutsche Post” inscription used
Russian Zone of Germany: currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1917) WW II-post: Russian zone of occupation included stamps for eastern Berlin (Brandenberg), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony, and Thuringia
Russia Refugee’s Post: 1921: stamps of Russia, South Russia, Russian Levant and the Ukraine were overprinted and surcharged for use in refugee camps in Turkey, etc. after the evacuation of the Crimea by General Wrangel’s South Russian Volunteer Army
Russia, South: 1918-19: stamps included Don Territory Government used surcharged Russian stamps; Kuban Territory Government used surcharged Russian stamps, and Postal Savings Stamps; Crimea Regional Government issued two Russian surcharged stamps, one for currency; South Russian Government of General Denikin issued inscribed stamps “United Russia;” Government of South Russia, General Wrangel, issued surcharged Russian stamps
Russisch Polen: overprint on stamps of Germany, German occupation of Poland, 1915
Russie: (Sp.) Russia
Russifch – Polen: (Ger.) Russian Poland; overprint on stamps of Germany issued during German occupation, May 12, 1915
Russisk: (Dan., Nor.) Russian
Russiske zone: (Dan.) Russian Zone
Russiske skeppspost: (Swed.) Russian ship mail (ship post)
Russiske skibspost: (Dan.) Russian ship mail (ship post)
Russiske skipspost: (Nor.) Russian ship mail (ship post)
Russiske Sone: (Nor.) Russian Zone
Russiske Zone: (Dan.) Russian Zone
Russisk østasiasisk republik: (Dan.) (Russian) Far Eastern Republic
Russisk Post i Kina: (Dan.) Russian Post Offices in China
Russisk Post i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) Russian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire ( Levant)
Russisk Post i Udlandet: (Dan.) Russian Post Offices Abroad
Russland: (Dan., Ger., Nor.) Russia
Russusch-Polen: (Ger.) overprint on stamps of Germany for use in occupied Russian Poland, 1915
Rust: brown mold that disfigures stamps in humid climates
Rustbrun: (Dan., Nor.) rust-brown (color)
Rustenberg: town in the Transvaaal; 1900, June 23: stamps overprinted V.R. during South-African war
Rustorange: (Dan.) rust-orange (color)
Rustoranjse: (Nor.) rust-orange (color)
Rustrød: (Dan., Nor.) rust-red (color)
Rutebil: (Dan.) long distance bus
Rutherfordton, N.C. Paid 5cts: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Rutland Postal Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Ruzovy: (Czech.) pink, rose-colored (color)
RV: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Motor Vehicle Use
RVB: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Boating
RVC: Scott Catalog number prefix for Camp
RVT: Scott Catalog number prefix for Trailer Permit
RW: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Hunting Permit
Rwanda: central Africa, formerly part of Ruanda-Urundi, aka Rwandaise Republic; currency:100 centimes = 1 franc 1914-pre: part of German East Africa, 1924: United Nations mandated territory, passed to Belgium with Urundi as Republic of Burundi, 1962, July 1: No.1, 10 centimes brown and gray green, first stamp as Republic of Rwanda, 1963, April 6: joined the U.P.U., 1967, Sep. 18: first air mail stamp. 1973, Aug. 23: first semipostal stamp, Ruanda-Urundi
Rwanda: bogus butterflies issue of 1999, reported to the UPU, Feb. 7, 2000
Rwandaise: Rwanda
R.W.H.E.: Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson; manufacturers of the U.S. 1847 stamps
RX: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Distilled Spirits
RY: auction abbreviation for topical rotary and lions
RY: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Firearms Transfer
Ryazan: city in Russia, local post, Russian Zemstvo 1867-80
Ryazhsk: city in Russia, local post, Russian Zemstvo 1882-98
Ryssland: (Swed.) Russia
Rysk: (Swed.) Russian
Rytec: (Czech.) engraver
Ryukyu Islands: group of 63 islands in the Pacific Ocean; between Japan and Taiwan; currency: 100 sen = 1 yen, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1958) 1879: under control of Japan, 1945, Aug.: occupied by the U.S., military post office, provisional overprints of four island districts on stamps of Japan, 1945, Oct. 1: Kume Island; mimeographed on U.S. military paper, 1946: Miyako District, handstamp with chops on stamps of Japan, 1947: Amami District; handstamp with chops on stamps of Japan, 1947, Nov. 1: Okinawa District; with personal seal of Postmaster Hirata, 1948: Yaeyama District; personal seal of Postmaster Mitara, 1949, July: No.18, 5 sen magenta, first regular issue, 1950, Feb. 15: first air mail stamp, first special delivery stamps, 1952: first revenue stamps, 1953: Amami group returned to Japan, 1972, May 15: rest of islands restored to Japan, uses stamps of Japan
RZ: Scott Catalog number prefix for Rectification
Rzhef: city in Russia, local post, Russian Zemstvo 1867-96

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