Glossary – M


M: 1: Scott Catalog Number prefix for Military. 2: with eagle and United States of America: Massachusetts Custom House revenue seal. 3: within an oval of bars, Malta cancellation, mid 1800s. 4: Madrid (Spain), pre-adhesive postmark 5: Mail; mail specialist at Navy postal facilities. 6: Mecklenburg (Germany), pre-adhesive postmark 7: 3M Corporation prefix letter in front of the plate number on its stamp production. 8: currency unit Metical (Mozambique); Maloti (Lesotho); Manat (Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan), Mark (Germany). 9: Menin, Milano (Italy), pre-adhesive postmark. 10: mint, auction abbreviation. 11: Military, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74. 12: Belgium Military Parcel Post overprint. 13: in oval, Allied military post inscription, first issue of stamps after World War II in Germany
“M”: Manning (Depot)
M, Ma: (Sp.) on postmarks, mañana, morning
$M: pound, currency unit in Malta
MA: international postal code for Morocco
MA: 1: USPS abbreviation for Massachusetts. 2: Maryland, pre-adhesive postmark
M A: Ministerio de Agricultura (Ministry of Agriculture), overprint on official stamps of Argentina.
Madagascar: overprint on stamps of France, or French Colonies, 1895; Anjouan, Antananarivo, Madagascar, French
MAC: international postal code for Macedonia
Mac & Co’s Dispatch: U.S. local post, Fallsington-Morrisville, Pa
Macao: Portuguese settlement located on China coast near mouth of the Canton River; 1557: Portuguese possession, 1883: used stamps of Hong Kong, 1884, Mar.1: first stamps, 1894: “Provisorio” surcharge on 2a and 10r values are unofficial and not authorized, 1904: first postage due stamp, 1911, Apr. 2: “Republica” overprint by Lisbon, 1919: first semi-postal stamp, 1999, Dec. 20.: reverted to Chinese rule, stamp overprinted to “Commemorate the Establishment of the Special Administrative Region of People’s Republic of China, Macao, China.”
Ma Catalog: Ma Ren Chuen’s Illustrated Catalogue of the Stamps of China
Macchia: (It.) spot, stain
Macclesfield Committee (MS&LRy): British railway local post
Macedonia: central portion of the Balkan Peninsula; 1913, July 1: overprint on stamps of Bulgaria in Greek, 1914:: reverted to Greece, Greek stamps used, 1942, Sept. 12: Bulgaria annexed Yugoslav Macedonia, 1944, Sept. 1-Nov. 13: German occupation established Macedonia, stamps of Bulgaria surcharged in Cyrillic, divided between Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia, authenticity dubious, 1944, Oct. 28: first stamps issued, 1991, Nov. 21: declared independence, 1992: “Makedonija” inscription for Macedonia, 1993, July 12: joined the UPU
Mach: auction abbreviation term for machine
Macharraviaga: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, (Malaga)1937
Machin: British stamps with a design based on a plaster cast profile of Queen Elizabeth II from a plaster cast of the queen’s profile by Arnold Machin, first introduced on June 5, 1967
Machine cancel: cancel applied by a machine vs handstamp and comprises slogan and plain version
Macklin, John J. & Co.: see Private die match proprietary stamps
Mack Postograph Co.: U.S. postage meter firm, 1922-28, acquired by Continental Postage Meter Co
MacMillan Aerial Expedition: Donald B.MacMillan, noted Arctic explorer, pioneered use of airplanes and radios in Arctic exploration; postcard is a souvenir and has no relation by date to any of his expeditions
Macon, Ga., Geo., Five cents, Two cents: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Macquires Express: baggage express firm serviced New York City to railroad and steamship lines; used a label; 1880s
Mactan Island: bogus stamps and overprints for Philippine island south of Cebu
Macula: (Sp.) stain, spot, blemish
MAD: Marcus A. Davis, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; Plate Finisher, Siderographer
Madagascar: see Malagasy Republic for later issues; 1875-1899: Norwegian Missionary Service operated parcel post service, 1880s: France claimed as protectorate, 1884-86: British consulate issued stamps for British subjects from Tananarive (Antananarivo) to where the mail could be placed into the French mail system; French colonial stamps had to be applied, 1885: French Colonies general issues, including overprinted provisionals, 1887: French system took over, 1889: French post offices opened, stamps were surcharges on French colonial issues, (French Offices in Madagascar), 1894: first stamps issued, 1895, Jan.-Sept.: during blockade of port by French Navy, mail taken to Vatamandry, where it was placed aboard British vessels, 1896, annexed by France, “Madagascar and Dependencies” inscription; first postage due stamp issued, 1898: Diego Suarez, Nossi Be and Ste. Marie attached to Madagascar, 1915, Feb.: first semi-postal stamp issued, 1935: first airmail stamp issued, 1942: British occupied island, Free French administration, when France fell to Germany, 1945: French rule restored
Madagaskar: (Swed.) Madagascar
Madagaszkár: (Hung.) Madagascar
Madang: formerly Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, Papua New Guinea
Madeira: islands off north-east coast of Africa, 1868-pre: stamps of Portugal used, 1868-1929: overprint “Madeira” on stamps of Portugal, 1880: stamps of Funchal used, 1905-31: stamps of Azores used, 1925: first semi-postal, postage due stamps, 1929: stamps of Portugal used, 1980, Jan. 2: first use of islands name, used with issues of Portugal
Maderanerthal: Switzerland hotel post, 1870-1884, Hotel Alpenklub
Madison, Ga. 5 Paid: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Madison Court House, Fla. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Madison Court House, Fl.: see Confederate States of America, 3¢ 1861 Postmasters’ Provisionals
Madman State: India, parody of Wadwan State
Madrid: 1: Spanish local post, 1853. 2: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, Republican, 1937. 3: 1907, Industrial Exhibition labels. 4. Spain, Universal Postal Union Congress, inscription, used on stamps of Spain, 1920-30
Madrid issue: stamp of Spain overprinted “Republica” in Madrid, 1931. Has to be qualified “in Madrid” since there was a similar overprint in Barcelona (the Barcelona Issue)
Mælkeblå: (Dan.) milky-blue (color)
Mælkorange: (Dan.) milky-orange (color)
Mafeking: Bechuanaland, South African town; besieged Nov.12, 1899 to May 17, 1900, Boer War; issued own stamps ordered by Major General Baden Powell; 1900, Mar. 24-May 17:Cape of Good Hope and Bechuanaland stamps overprinted “Mafeking Besieged;” depicting Baden-Powell portrait and Goodyear cycle
Mafia Island: East African coast on Rufiji River, Zanzibar; 1914-pre: part of German East Africa, 1914: Dec. occupied by British forces, used German East Africa stamps overprinted “G.R. / Post / Mafia,”and “G.R.I.-Mafia,” 1915, Jan.: overprint on I.E.F. overprinted stamps of India “G.R. Post / Mafia,” G.E.A., German East Africa overprinted stamps were used, 1916: N.F. overprint on stamps of Nyasaland used by the Nyasa-Rhodesia Field Force, ??YR: incorporated into Tanganyika
Magaga: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1868-84
Magyarorzag: (Hung,) Hungarian Republic; used on stamps of Hungary after 1947
Magánposták: (Hung.) private posts
Magdalena: Colombian State (Rio Hacha), with initials of authorizing agent, bogus issue, 1901
Magdeburg: German local post (Courier), 1886-1906
Magentarot: (Ger.) magenta (color)
Maghiar: (Rom.) Magyar, Hungarian (adj)
Magic Letter Express: U.S. local post, Evans, Porter & Co., Richmond, Va. 1865
Magnifier: essential to a stamp collector in order to detect details of a stamp not seen with the naked eye
Magyar: 1. inscription / overprint for name of country; Hungarian
Magyar Kir. Hirlap Belyeg: inscription on stamps of Hungary for newspaper tax
Magyar Kir(alyi) Posta: inscription for Hungarian Royal Post, 1874-1944
Magyar Köztársaság: (Hung.) Republic of Hungary
Magyar Nemzeti Kormány Szeged: (Hung.) “Hungarian People’s Government Szeged” overprint on stamps of Hungary, 1919, for the Komitat of Szegedin
Magyar Nepkoztarsasag: (Hung.) inscription on stamps of Hungary for Peoples Popular Republic, showing full name, used only in 1919
Magyarorszag: inscription on stamps of Hungary for Hungarian State, 1925-36, 1991-
Magyarországi Szerb Megszállás: (Hung.) Serbian occupation of Hungary
Magyar Posta: (Hung.) inscription/overprint “Hungarian Post,” 1945-91
Magyar Tanács Köztársaság: (Hung.) “Hungarian Soviet Republic” overprint on stamps of Hungary, 1919
Mahalla: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1864-84
Mahalle-Kibir: Egypt, see Interpostal seals
Mahallet-Abou-Ali: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1880-82
Mahallet-Damana: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1884
Mahallet-Malek: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1880
Mahallet-Moussa: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1880-82
Mahallet-Roh: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1867-84
Mahdi Postes Soudan: bogus, label
Mahon: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
Mahra Sultanate of Qishn and Socotra: Eastern Aden protectorate, South Arabia; 1967, Mar. 12: first stamps, incorporated into People’s Republic of Southern Yemen
Mahra State: part of South Arabia, Aden, issued local stamps in 1967
Mähren: (Ger.) Moravia
Mai: (Nor., Rom.) May (month)
Maiden flight: first flight of a new aircraft type; mail carried on board is unofficial
Maidstone Overseas: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Maigre: (Fr.) thin
Mai Gt.Pre. 1902: overprint on stamps of Haiti, (Gouvernmnet Provisoire) Provisional Government, 1902
Mail: letters, parcels and other items delivered through the postal agency; word originated from French word “Maille” for traveling bag, wallet or trunk.
Mail art: hand made labels, sent on a cover, designed to simulate stamps
Mail bid sale: all bidding is done by mail, phone or e-mail with a pre-set cut-off date and time when winning bids are tabulated
Mail boats in the Pacific: 1864: French lines Messageries Maritimes started operations in Indian Ocean, 1867: American Pacific Steam Navigation Co. started operating from San Francisco to Hong Kong, 1868: American post offices opened in Shanghai and Japan, 1877: Oriental and Oceanic Steamship Co. began operating, 1886: German Norddeutsche Lloyd of Bremen started service to Australia, Singapore and China 1892: Canadian Pacific Railway started service Hong Kong to Vancouver, 1900: German line extended service to Japan, 1901: German Jaluit Company began services to Marshall, Mariana and Caroline Islands, 1914: all French and German lines shut down, 1920: French lines operated again, 1940: French lines discontinued operation
Mailbox: any private receptacle or container used by postal customers to receive mail, either at their residence or at curbside
Mail boxes, first: Florence, Italy established closed wooden boxes with an opening at the top in the 16th century, installed in churches for anonymous letters against wrong-doers
Mailboxes Ltd.: private post operator in New Zealand who uses own postage stamps
Mail boxes, oldest in use: Hauteville and Union Street, Guernsey erected in 1853 as part of Anthony Trollope’s experiment and still in use
Mail boxes, public vehicles: put on tramcars in New York City in 1886
Mail boxes, roads: first established in Paris in1653 and were emptied three times a day
Mail card: inscription on privately printed postcards; UPU regulations required first class letter rate if mailed out of country of origin, since they did not have the official inscription
Mail certs: 1941; British Embassy in the U.S. inaugurated this system of certification for U.S. senders of mail to some neutral countries
Mail coaches: 1: introduced in England in 1784 for run between London and Bristol. 2: 1773; carried mail between Boston and Portsmouth. 3: U. S. March 3, 1807; replaced mounted mail carriers by Act of Congress
Mail Delivery: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Mail early (ME): an inscription found in the margins of U.S. stamps and booklet panes; started in 1965 to encourage people to Mail Early in the Day; these are usually collected in blocks of six
Mail Early / in the Day: marginal inscription found on U.S. commemorative stamps since 1968
Mailed on Rural Route: handstamp for parcel post delivered on rural routes at a lower rate than regular parcel post due to special rate given to rural route residents
Mailer’s Permit Postmark: postmark applied to mail by the mailer, prior to submission to the USPS for normal mail distribution
Mailer’s Permits: postmark on first class, pre-cancelled mail, supplied by permit holders
Mailer’s postmark: U.S. system that permits mailers to create and use their own postmark; requires a special no cost permit from the USPS
Mailer’s precancel postmark (MPP): authorized mailer use of a postal cancellation applied to stamps prior to mailing
Mail for this Address Prohibited: postal marking on covers usually addressed to sellers of Irish sweepstake lottery tickets; mail is returned to sender with marking
Mail fraud: a scheme to get money or other assets from a postal customer by offering a product, service or investment opportunity that does not live up to its claims; prosecutors must prove that the mails were used to carry out the scheme
Mailgram: trademark of Western Union; a hard-copy message transmitted electronically by Western Union and delivered by the USPS
Mailman: aka letter carrier or postal worker
Mail moment: term devised by the USPS as the moment when household open the letters and packages received that day
Mailomat: combination franking and mailing machine introduced by Pitney-Bowes in May 17, 1939
Mail O-Meter Co: Detroit, Mich. manufacturer of stamp vending machines, 1906-17, distinct perforation; formerly Schermack Mailing Machine Co., Mail-om-eter Co., Mail-O-Meter Co.; U.S. postage meter firm acquired by Pitney-Bowes
Mail receptacle: a privately owned mailbox or a USPS collection box used to receive or deposit mail
Mail Route: coastal waterways ship mail handstamp, 1820s
Mail sale: a private sale with no bidders present, bidding is done by phone, Internet or mail; winning bids are determined by a cutoff date and time, published in a printed catalog
Mail sorting, mechanical: sorter installed at Rotterdam, Holland Sept. 1935
Mail stop order: an order that directs the post office of delivery to return to the sender any mail responding to a false representation or lottery scheme
Mail Stream: movement of mail within the Postal Service
Mail suspended: Civil War handstamp used on Northern U.S. mail addressed to postal addresses in the South
Maine : U.S. state March 16, 1820; created from part of District of Maine, Massachusetts
Main Post Office: primary post office in a city with secondary post offices; formerly called General Post Office
Main stock: all postage stamps and other accountable inventory received by a post office, but not yet consigned to the window clerks
Mainz: German local post, 1: (Drucckschriften-Expedition und Circulair-Post) 1888-89. 2: Express,Eilgut und Packet-verkehr) 1886. 3: (Privat-Brief-Beforderung) 1886-1900. 4: (Privat-Brief-Verkehr) 1886
Maîtres de poste: (Fr.) postmasters whose job it was to house, feed and water the royal messenger and his horse when he stopped at the relay station
Maj: 1: Major, 2: (Dan., Swed.) May (month)
Máj: (Czech.) May (month)
Major Ted’s Stamp Talk: 2002 radio talk show by Ted Bahry via the Internet
Majunga: Madagascar local post, Feb., 1895, issued by French expeditionary force as handstamped overprints on stamps of France
Majus: (Hung.) May (month)
Makel: (Ger.) stain, fault
Makeready: The process of setting up and adjusting a printing press for a particular ink, paper and set of printing conditions prior to a press run. Also, the paper used during these adjustments
Makeshift booklets: U.S. stamp booklets containing stamps normally issued in panes; dispensed by postal vending machines
Makeshift paper: refers to paper used in Europe for stamp production after World War 1
Make-up: stamp booklet contents, usually in total number of stamps of each denomination
Make-up rate stamps: nondenominated stamps issued for use with stamps of previously issued first-class letter rate stamps to make up the difference
Makkah: aka Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Maklaturpapier: (Ger.) trial paper used for essays
Maków: city in German-occupied Russian Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20
Makulatur: (Den., Ger., Nor., Swed.) printer’s waste
Ma-Kuta: currency used in Congo Democratic Republic
MAL: international postal code for Malaysia
M.A.L.: Military Authority Lira, currency surcharge on stamps of Great Britain, British Offices Abroad for North and East Africa (Tripotania)
Malaba: formerly Sta. Isabel, Equatorial Africa
Malacca: aka Melaka; state, Malaya; on west side of Malay Peninsula; (located in Scott Catalogue after Malaya); 1842: became British; then one of the British Straits Settlements, Straits Settlements stamps used, 1942: Japanese occupation, overprints on stamps of the Straits Settlements, a single overprint covered four stamps, 1942: occupation postage due stamps, 1948, Dec. 1: first commemorative stamp, inscribed Malaya Malacca, 1949, March 1: first definitive, 1957: stamps of the Malayan Federation used with those of Malacca, 1965, Nov. 15: used designs of Johore, inscribed Malacca, stamps of Malaysia, name changed to Melaka
Malaga: 1. local post, Spanish civil war Nationalist, Republican, 1936-37. 2. stamps of Spain overprinted “Malaga Liberada” (Free Malaga, 1937)
Malaga Arriba España: overprint on stamps of Spain, revenue issue, Malaga
Malagache, Republique: Madagascar, 1958-60
Malaga Liberada: overprint on stamps of Spain, Malaga
Malagasy, Repoblika: Madagascar, 1961-76
Malagasy, Repoblika Demokratika: Madagascar, 1976
Malagasy Republic: see Madagascar for previous issues; 1958, Oct. 14: became Malagasy Republic, 1958, Dec. 10: first commemorative stamp as Malagasy Republic, 1959, Jan. 31: “Republique Malgache,” inscription, 1960, July 29: first semi-postal, air mail as Malagasy Republic, 1961, Nov. 2: joined UPU, 1962, May 7: first postage due as Malagasy Republic, 1975: became Democratic Republic of Malagasy
Malaiske Stater: (Dan.) Malayan States
Malaia: (Den., Nor.) Malaya
Malaiske Stater: (Dan., Nor.) Malayan States
Malaja: (Swed.) Malaya
Malajisk: (Den., Nor.) Malayan
Malajsk: (Swed.) Malayan
Malajske Stater: (Swed.) Malayan States
Malájzia: (Hung.) Malaysia
Malaisie: (Fr.) Malaysia
Malakote: German postal agency produced these labels in 1888 for use as inland postal service in Malakote; but a treaty took area away before labels could be used
Malaria, Anti: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1962
Malawi: formerly British Protectorate of, Nyasaland; 1907, July 6: named Nyasaland Protectorate, 1954: became part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1963: became independent state of Malawi, 1964, July 6: Malawi stamps inscribed “Ufulu,” (Independence), 1966, July 6: declared a republic, 1967, Sept. 1: first postage due stamp
Malakote: German East Africa unissued stamps
Malaku Selatan: South Moluccas, formerly Nyasaland; 1964: first commemorative stamp, 1966, Oct. 25: joined UPU. 1967: first postage due stamp, 1972: first air mail stamp
Malawi Special U.K.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Malay, (Federated Malay States): Malaya; 1878-1900: individual states had their own stamps, see state name for data; 1896, July 1: Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, and Selangor joined as Federated Malay States, 1900: “Federated Malay States” overprint on stamps of Negri Sembilan, valid for all four states, 1922: “Federated Malay States” overprint on some stamps of Pahang; valid for all four states, 11924: first postage due, 1935: Malayan Postal Union formed, predecessor of the Malayan Federation, 1936-42: first stamps were postage dues used in Straits Settlements, Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor, 1945-63: postage dues used in Singapore and Federation of Malaya, 1963-Aug. 15, 1966: postage dues used in Singapore and the Federation of Malaysia (including Borneo), Aug. 15, 1966-Jan. 31, 1968: postage dues used in Singapore only. 1945, Oct. 19-1948: “B M A Malaya” overprint on stamps of Straits Settlements, 1948-post: states issued their own stamps, but B M A Malaya overprint was used to 1951
Malaya: 1: with vignette of Sultan and Arabic: inscription Straits states; Selangor 1935, Negri Sembilan 1949, Pahang, Perak, Trengganu 1950, Kelantan, Perlis 1951. 2: with state name: Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak 1935, Straits 1936, Selangor 1941, Simgapore 1948, Johore, Malacca, Penang 1949, Kedah 1950. 3: Malacca with Malacca Cane, Jungle Phone, mobile hairdresser inscriptions; unissued Great Britain cinderellas by David Horry, 2001. 4: first appeared on stamps in 1935-36 on issues of Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Straits Settlements
Malaya, Federation of: 1946, April 1: see Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak, Perlis, Selanger and Trengganu formed the Malay Union, 1946: Malayan Union stamp not issued, 1948, Feb. 1: group changed to the Federation of Malaya, 1948-63: each of the 11 territories issued their own stamps, valid in each other’s territories, search territory for information, 1957, May 5: Federation of Malaya formed, issued own stamps, could be used with individual states’ stamps, 1957, Aug.1: member of the British Commonwealth, 1957, Aug. 31: became independent, 1963, Sept. 16: became part of Malaysia, 1965, Nov. 15: stamps of Malaysia superseded all stamps
Malaya, Japanese Occupation: 1942: “Dai Nippon 2602 Malaya” (Japanese Year equivalent to 1942) overprint on Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, Straits Settlements, and Trengganu, 1942: “Dai Nippon 2602” overprint on stamps of Kedah, 1942: “Dai Nippon 2602 Penang” overprint on stamps of the Straits Settlements, 1942: “Dai Nippon Yubin”(Japanese Postal Service) overprint on stamps of Perak, 1942: occupation stamps with boxed Japanese characters overprinted for postage due, 1943: occupation stamps with boxed Japanese characters overprinted on stamps of Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor, Straits Settlements, and Trengganu
Malaya, Thai Occupation: included Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Tregganu; 1943, Dec: issued by Japanese for use in Thai-occupied areas, 1945, Sept.: reverted to British rule
Malaysia: 1963, Sept. 16: first stamps for Malayan Federation, merger of Federation of Malaya, North Borneo (Sabah), Sarawak, Singapore, totaling 14 states; Sabah and Sarawak issued their own stamps; 1963: Oct. Perak issued its own stamps, 1965: Singapore seceded from the Federation, 1965, Nov. other states issued their own stamps, 1966-pre: used postage due stamps of the Malayan Postal Union, 1979, April 30: local definitives issued for the Federal District of Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia Johor: inscription on stamps of Malaysia for Johore State, 1965, 1971
Malaysia Sarawak: see Sarawak
Malaya Singapore: see Singapore
Malaya Straits Settlements: see Straits Settlements
Malayischer Bund: (Ger.) Federated Malay States
Malaysia, Federation of: Malay Peninsula, North Borneo, with Sarawak and Sabah (North Borneo); for total of 14 Malaya states; 1963, Sept.16: first stamp issued, each territory used their own stamps up to 25 cent value, Sabah and Sarawak issued their own stamps due to having different rates, 1963, Oct.: Perak allowed to issue their own stamps, 1965: Singapore withdrew, 1965, Nov.: ten other members could issue their own stamps, 1966: first postage due stamp
Malburin: occurs when the engraver’s burin tool slips when an intaglio or recessed printing plate is being touched up; leaving a obvious deviation
Mal centré: (Fr.) badly centered
Maldirige: (Sp.) missent or misdirected mail, to explain delay in arrival
Maldive Islands: a group of 2,000 islands in the Indian Ocean, west of Ceylon; 1906, Sept. 9: “Maldives” overprint on stamps of Ceylon, 1909: issued own stamps, 1948: independent sultanate, 1953, Jan. 1: republic under British protection, 1954: became a Sultanate, 1965, July 26: became an independent sovereign state, 1967, Aug. 15: joined UPU, 1968, Nov. 11: became a republic
Maldiverna: (Swed.) the Maldive Islands
Maldiverne: (Dan., Nor.) the Maldive Islands
Malert Budapest: Hungary semi-official air mail
Malgache: Madagascar, 1959-61
Malguzari: Indian States term for revenue
Mali, Federation of: Federation of French Sudan and Senegal, West Africa; 1899: colony abolished and divided among various French colonies, 1921: “Sudan Francais” overprint on stamps of Niger and Upper Senegal, 1958: became the Sudanese Republic, 1959, Jan. 17: became Federation of Mali with Republic of Senegal and French Sudan, 1959, April 4: made up of Republic of Senegal and the Sudanese Republic, 1959, Nov. 7: first stamps issued, 1959, Dec. 11: first air mail stamp, 1960, June: Senegal seceded to become Republic of Senegal, formerly French Sudan, 1960, June 20: became Republic of Mali, 1960, Dec. 18: first air mail stamp, 1961, Jan. 15: first official stamp, 1961, Mar. 18: postage due stamps, 1961, April 21: joined UPU, 1962, Apr. 7, 1962 : first semi-postal stamp,
Maligayang Pasko: term meaning Happy Holiday on Philippine seals
Mallawi: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1884
Mallaz: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1879-80
Malli: (Fin.) see Specimen
Mallorca: Spanish civil war nationalist, 1936-38
Malmédy: Belgian occupation of Germany; 1815: Prussian Rhine province; 1919: annexed by Belgium, 1920-21: overprints on stamps of Belgium, Belgian Occupation of Malmedy, Germany
Malmö: Seaport and seat of Malmöhus province in SW Sweden on the Øresund Strait Opposite Copenhagen, Denmark, ca. 345 miles SSW of Stockholm. Local posts established in 1888, with set-of-7 different values “Malmo Gamla Stadsbudsexpedition / Bud Utryres” local stamps issued in 1888, and a similar series in a smaller format issued 1889
Malmo Gamla: Sweden local post, 1888-1926
Malmö – G. Wisen Local Post: Local post established in 1926 by G. Wisen (followed, in 1927, by N. Rehnfalt), with typographed (Cronholms Litografiska Anstalt Co., Malmö) 4 ore violet “Malmö på Lokalpost” stamp depicting a Viking ship in full sail Issued 30 January 1926, and a second set-of-6 different values “Malmö / Privata / Lokalpost” stamps depicting a horse-mounted statue issued later in 1926
Malmyzh: local post, Russian Zemstvo, 1869-97
Maloarkhanggelsk: local post, Russian Zemstvo, 1871-76
Maloti: unit of currency in Lesotho
Malta: British island colony in Mediterranean, off coast of Sicily; 1854: British stamps delivered for use on external mail. 1857-85: British stamps cancelled “M” or “A 25” used for international mail, 1860, Dec. 1: stamp issued inscribed Malta for use on internal mail, 1885, Jan. 1: first definitive series, 1922: “Self-government” overprint, 1925: first postage due stamp, 1928, Apr. 1: first air mail stamp, 1964, Sept. 21: independent nation within the British Commonwealth, 1965,May 21: joined UPU, 1969, Nov. 8: first semi-postal stamp, 1974: declared itself a republic
Malta: Maltese Falcon inscription; unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001
Malta Keytype: nickname for King George V 1914 series that was used for several of the Crown Colonies
Malta “Ticks”: Malta 1885 issue surcharged “One Penny in 1902; “One Pnney” occurred once on each pane; Valletta postmaster ticked all remaining unsurcharged sheets in upper left-hand corner
Malte: (Fr.) Malta
Maltese Cross (MC): first cancellation used on British stamps, 1840; name given by stamp collectors; design based on the Tudor rose and not the eight-pointed cross of the Knights of Malta; which was cross of four equal corners with wide notched ends
Malteserkreuz: (Ger.) Maltese cross
Maluku Selatan: overprint for proposed state of South Moluccas, Indonesia, but never issued
Maluti: currency unit in Lesotho
Malvinas: Argentine name for Falkland Islands
Mamatius: British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book, Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers
Mambia: British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book, Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers
Man, Man.a, Mant.a, (It.) Matova (Italy pre-adhesive postmark)
Manachi: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1879-82
Manama: Bahrain, also known as Al Manamah; 1964: first stamp, 1972: overprint, see Ajman
Manat: currency unit in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan
Mancha: (Sp.) spot, stain
Mancha Real: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Manchester &Milford Railways: British railway local post
Manchester Delivery: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Manchester Express: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Manchester Local Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway: British railway local post
Manchester, South Junction & Atrincham Railway: British railway local post
Manchieh: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1884
Manchukuo, Manchuria; 1920-pre: China and Russia in their respective post offices, 1927, Mar. 18: stamps of China overprinted for use in districts of Kirin and Heilungkiang. 1932, July 26: name changed from Manchuria to Manchukuo by Japanese invaders, 1932, July 26-45: first stamps issued, note that the first 2,000 sheets of each value have a one-line imprint in Chinese “Manufactured by Japanese Imperial Government Printing Bureau,” 1933, Mar. 1: establishment of state, Jehol annexed, 1936: first air mail stamp, 1946: returned to China, known as Manchuria, 1946, Feb.-Oct. 1948: stamps issued for North Eastern provinces (Nationalist), 1946, Feb.-May 1951: stamps issued for North Eastern provinces (Communist). 1951, May: stamps of Chinese People’s Republic used
Manchuriet: (Dan., Nor. Swed.) Manchuria
Mancolista: (Sp.) collector’s checklist of wanted stamps
Mancoliste: (Fr.) collector’s checklist of wanted stamps
Mandag: (Dan., Nor.) Monday
Måndag: (Swed.) Monday
Mandal: Seaport town in extreme S of Vest-Agder county on the Skagerrak (also Skagerak) Strait, S Norway, ca. 185 miles SW of Oslo. Local post established by N. Herlofson, with set-of-5 “Bypost / Mandal / Bypost” lithographed local stamps depicting a tree issued 15 November 1886. The stamps are cancelled with a single-ring “Mandals-Bypost” circular datestamps having an 8-pointed star at the bottom, and the date and time in four lines at the center. The local post ceased operations effective 30 April 1886
Mandal Bypost: Norway local post, 1886
Mandare: (Sp.) forward
Mandat: (Ger.) mandate
Mandat: (Fr.) inscription for money order stamps, Netherlands, 1894
Mandated Territory of Tanganyika: see Tanganyika
Mandate stamp: stamps issued for certain mandated territories after WW I
Mandchoukuo: (Fr.) Manchukuo
Mandchourie: (Fr.) Manchuria
M & I: Maurice et Indies (Fr.) Mauritius and the Indies
M & M: Match and Medicine 19th century private die stamps used to pay federal taxes
Mando: (Sp.) civil war marking for military or naval command
M. Andresen Local Post: Christianssund – M. Andresen Local Post
Mandschurei: (Ger.) Manchuria
Måned: (Nor.) month
Manfalout: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1872-82
Mangalia: Romania revenue issue that is regarded as bogus
Mängel: (Ger.) defect, fault
Mangelhaft: (Ger.) defective, faulty
Mangiare, lo Stato di: Donald Evans issue, “The State of Eating,: Donald Evans
Manhardt-Alexander: subcontractor to Ashton-Potter for printing of the 1994
Manhattan Delivery Company: parcel delivery firm serviced New York City; used complimentary frank labels, stamps; 1880s
Manhattan Express: U.S. local post handstamp, New York, N.Y., 1847
Manhattan Medicine Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Manifestation (philatélique): (Fr.) (philatelic) event
Manifiestos: inscription on a customs duty stamp of Cuba
Manilaid: bogus Russian issue, not valid for postage
Manila paper: a strong light coarse texture paper used for envelopes and wrappers; usually smooth on one side and rough on the other
Manilva: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937-38
Manises: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Man, isle of: see Isle of Man
Manizales: Antioquia, Colombia private local post, with labels, 1909
Manland, Republic of: fantasy cinderella, not valid for postage
Manlleu: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Mannheim: German local post; 1: Hansa Privatpost fur Stadtbriefel) 1886-87. 2: Mannheimer Paketfahrt Gesellschaft, 1906. 3: Privat-Brief-Verkehr, 1886-87. 4: Privat-Brief-Verkehr.Stadt, 1894-1900
Manoel Keytype: King Manoel portrait (Feb. 1908-Oct. 1910) used as a Portuguese colonial keytype
Manresa: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Mansfield & Higbee: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Mansfield, F. & Co.: see Private die match proprietary stamps
Mansfield, S. & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Mansiones: post stages, Roman imperial postal system, about 250 BC
Manson & Co’s Express: private parcel firm serviced Boston, Amesbury and Salisbury, Mass.; used a label; 1868
Mansoura: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1864-84
Manubaland: bogus stamps created for newspaper columnist
Manuel E. Jimenez: Colombia, Cauca Department, receipt label
Manuscript (MS): term describing covers or stamps with handwritten postal markings
Manuscript cancel: postmasters of small offices used pen cancellation since they did not have hand stamps, mostly used during 18th century but continued through the 19th
Manuscript marks: 1847-55; postmasters ordered to cancel adhesive postage stamps in manuscript; also known as pen cancellations
Manuscript provisionals: stamps with values altered by hand during shortage of stamps, Trinidad 1882, 1d and 6d
Manuscript surcharge: in emergencies, stamps had their denominations changed by manuscript, usually accompanied by a postal official’s initials
Manx: Isle of Man
Manzala: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1884
Manzanilla: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, Republican, 1937-38
M A O: Mailing Address Only; an Army Post Office that received mail only
Mapka: 1: (Cyrillic transliteration of “Marka”) currency unit in Azerbaijan, Finland, Russia, and Serbia. 2: (Cyrillic) stamp
Maple Leaf: nickname for Canadian 1897-98 issue depicting Queen Victoria with a maple leaf design in each corner
Maple Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Map stamps: stamps printed on reverse side of any abandoned maps available following World War I.; used in 1919-21 by Latvia; also known as “Map Backs.”
Maputo: formerly Lourenço Marques, Mozambique
Maquette: (Fr.) preliminary design (essay)
Maragha: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1884
Maravedi: (Sp.) currency unit in Spanish language countries
Marbelized paper: distinct wavy-line or marbelized watermark on stamps of Brazil
Marbella: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937
Marble’s Express: private parcel firm serviced Massachusetts towns; used a label; year unknown
Marca: (Sp.) cachet, mark
Marca da bollo: (It.) revenue issue of Italy
Marca de control: (Sp.) control mark
Marca pe fragment: (Rom.) postage stamp on piece of paper or envelope, or on a parcel clipping
Marca pe plic: (Rom.) postage stamp on a cover
Marca postala: (Rom.) postage stamp
Marca Postal al Dorso: (Sp.): backstamp; postmark applied to back of incoming mail to show date and time of receipt at the receiving post office
Marcas de abono: (Sp.) marks used on pre-philatelic letters and early stamped covers to indicate that postage was prepaid to destination
Marcas secretas: (Sp.) secret marks placed into the stamp design to guard against forgery
Marca taiata în jumatate: (Rom.) postage stamp cut in half, a bisect
Marchand de timbres: (Fr.) stamp dealer
Märchen: (Ger.) fairy tales (thematic)
Marchena: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937
Marches: market fees; French Colonies revenue inscription
Marci bulgare: (Rom.) Bulgarian postage stamps (issued for Romanian Occupation)
Marci maghiare: (Rom.) Hungarian postage stamps (issued for Romanian Occupation)
Marcile Craciune: (Rom.) Christmas stamps
Marcile pentru Fondol Aviatiei: (Rom.) Aviation Fund postage stamps
Marcile postale: (Rom.) postage stamps
Marcile porto: (Rom.) postage due stamps
Marcile postale: (Rom.) postage stamps
Marcile postale românesti: (Rom.) Romanian postage stamps
Marcilor dantelate: (Rom.) perforated stamps
Március: (Hung.) March (month)
Marco: (Sp.) frame, a border
Marcofilia: (Sp.) collecting all types of postal markings and cachets
Marcophilately: study of postmarks; also known as Marcophily, Commatology
Mare: (Fr.) sea
Mare Balticum: (Latin) Baltic Sea, exhibition name covering Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden
Marfleet Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Marge: (Fr.) margin, the portion of unprinted paper that surrounds a stamp or a pane of stamps; Margine; (It.) margen, borde (Sp.)
Margenes plenos: (Sp.) full margins
Margen de sello: (Sp.) stamp margin
Marges de tous cotés: (Fr.) full margins
Margin: the portion of unprinted paper that surrounds a stamp or a pane of stamps; rand (Ger.);
Margin Block: block of stamps with the margin selvage attached
Marginal: (Swed.) margin
Marginal advertising: commercial or postal announcements that are printed in the sheet margins
Marginales: (Sp.) margins surrounding a sheet of stamps
Marginal guide marks: lines, dots, arrows, etc. in the sheet margins that serve as a guide during the printing process
Marginal inscriptions (M I): printing that appears in margin of a stamp pane; also called marginal markings
Marginal rule: line in margins around British and commonwealth stamps. Also known as Jubilee Line
Marginal watermark: a watermark designed so that it will appear only in the sheet margin
Margin copy: a stamp that can be identified as originating from the edge of a sheet or pane with evidence of the margin or selvage
Margine de Francobollo: (It.) stamp margin
Margine pieno: (It.) full margins
Margin line: a perforated mark printed on the web to control each plate impression while passing through the electric eye perforator
Margin paper: another term for selvage
Marginal: (Swed.) margin
Mari, Mari-el: Bogus Russian local overprint
Marianas Españolas: (Sp.) overprint on stamps of Philippines, for Mariana Islands, Spanish administration, 1899
Marianen: (Ger.) inscription / overprint on stamps of Germany for Mariana Islands, 1899-19
Marianerna: (Swed.) the Marianna Islands
Maria Anna, S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built 1837, for middle and upper Danube lines
Maria Dorothea, S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built 1834, for Austrian post mail Trieste and Constantinople
Mariana Islands: island chain between Guam and Japan; 1899-pre: Spanish control, 1899, Sept.: “Marianas Españolas” overprint on stamps of the Philippines, Spanish Dominion of the islands, 1899: Guam ceded to the U.S., northern islands sold to Germany, 1899, Nov. 18: Marianen overprint on stamps of Germany, German Dominion of the islands, 1914: occupied by Japan, 1944: occupied by the U.S., 1951: U.S. post offices established in the U. S. Trust Territories of the United Nations
Marianerna: (Swed.) the Marianna Islands
Marianne: (Fr.) symbol of France, depicted on post-war French issues
Mariannen-Inseln: (Ger.) Marianas Islands
Mariannerne: (Dan.) the Mariana Islands
Mariannes (Iles): (Fr.) Marianne Islands
Maribor: local post overprint, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, 1945
Mariehamm: (Fin.) local post for use on steamships carrying mail, Aland Is. Finland, 1890s
Mari El: bogus Russian issue, not valid for postage
Marienwerder: area known as East Prussia; 1920: overprint “Commission Interalliee Marienwerder,” inscription “Plebiscite Marienwerder-Kwidzyn” on stamps of Germany, East Prussia plebiscite issue, 1920, March 13: first stamps issued, 1945: occupied by Soviet forces and given to Poland, renamed Kwidzyn
Marietta, Ga. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Marie Valerie, S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built around 1880s
Marij El: local post, Russian cinderella, late 1990s
Marijuana stamp: issued by some states to aid in the war against drugs; theoretically by drug dealers, who if arrested without the stamp, can face tax evasion in addition to other indictments
Marinebrief / Abs. Marinedetachment: naval mail from Marine Detachment at Tientsin, China, 1900
Marine insurance stamps: stamps issued by Netherlands and Netherlands Indies, for mail to be enclosed in a floating safe in case the boat sank,1921
Marine Postamt: (Ger.) naval mail office
Marineat: (Ger.)Sailors’ Council, German censor marking during Communist revolution, 1918
Marineschiffspost: (Ger.) handstamp for mail posted aboard a German ship
Marino: seceding state with typeset provisionals, Venezuela, 1903
Marion, Va. Paid 5, P. Office: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Marion and Prince Edward Islands: Antarctic islands used by South Africa as weather reporting stations; in March 1958, temporary postal station established
Mariposa: (Sp.) butterfly (thematic)
Maritimas: (Sp.) letters posted at sea and bearing some sort of maritime marking
Maritime and Newfoundland Airways: 1931 label prepared for a flight to St. Pierre; prohibited by the French government
Maritime mail: 1: any type of seaborne mail, usually with a special postmark. 2: term first used in 1939 by the Royal Navy as a security term to avoid using the ship name, port of departure or landing, or date
Maritime postmark: indicates usage aboard a ship; can take many forms
Maritime Provinces: Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island
Maritime surcharge: original concept for additional fee, was for mail that had to travel by sea more than 600 nautical miles
Mariupol: local post, Russian Zemstvo, 1871-78
Mariy-el: bogus Russian republic, not valid for postage
Marj-el: bogus Russian issue
Mark: currency unit in Allenstein, Bergedorf , Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, Germany, Hamburg, Lubeck, North German Confederation, Schleswig-Holstein, and Wurttemberg
Marka: currency unit in Bosnia-Hercegovina, Estonia, and Poland
Markaa, Markka: currency unit in Finland
Markby, E.C. Ltd.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Marke: (Ger.) adhesive stamp
Marke auf Brief: (Ger.) stamp on cover
Marka Ukramy: stamp printing firm for Ukrainian stamps
Markenblatt: (Ger.) commemorative stamp sheets
Marken der Übergangszeit: (Ger.) provisional issues, interim period
Markenfeld: (Ger.) position of stamp in a sheet
Markenhandler: (Ger.) stamp dealer
Markenheftchen: (Ger.) stamp booklet that contains one or more panes of stamps
Markenrand: (Ger.) stamp margin
Markenrolle: (Ger.) stamp coil, stamps gathered in a series of rings or spirals
Markensammler: (Ger.) philatelist
Market Value: price as quoted in advertisements or by stamp dealers
Markierte briefmarke: (Ger.) tagged stamp
Marking and rating stamps: P.O. Regulation, 1852; metal stamps furnished to offices that collect $300 a year in postage; wood stamps in post offices that collect $200 per year; any other stamps must be done at the expense of the postmaster
Markka: currency unit in Finland
Marmorizado: (Port.) see Marbelized
Maroc: (Fr.) overprint for Morocco; French Morocco, Morocco
Marocco: overprint on stamps of Germany, Offices in Morocco
Marocko: (Swed.) Morocco
Marockansk: (Swed.) Moroccan
Maroc, Royaume de: Marocco
Maroko: (Czech.) Morocco
Marokko: 1. overprint on stamps of Germany, Offices in Morocco, 1911. 2. (Dan., Nor.) Morocco
Marokkansk: (Dan., Nor.) Moroccan
Maroksky: (Czech.) Moroccan
Maros, S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built around 1880s, for middle Danube lines
Marotiri Island: Copper Mines Syndicate, New Zealand local post stamps, 1899
Marque d’affranchissement: (Fr.) frank
Marque d’contról: (It.) control mark (overprint)
Marque d’entree: (Fr.) handstamp indicating entry from another country
Marquilla: (Sp.) authentication mark put on the backs of stamps by Spanish dealers as evidence of its genuineness; also used as the name of the instrument making the mark
Marrakesh-Mazagan: inscription on local post of Morocco operating between two cities
Married pairs: nickname used for the stamps from printing plates that produced two different stamps; the same plates were used to make the 1840 Penny Blacks and also the Penny Reds
Marries: watermark seen on French-area artist’s die proofs
Marrón: (Sp.) brown, coffee or chocolate (color)
Marrone: (It.) brown, coffee or chocolate (color)
Marruecos: overprint on stamps of Spain for Spanish Morocco, 1903-55; or Northern Zone 1956-58
Marruecos Espanol: overprint on stamps of Spain for Spanish Morocco, Northern Zone
MARS: Manuscript and Archives Reference System; used by State of North Carolina, contains postal history information
Mars: (Nor, Swed.) March (month)
Marschell Inseln: Marshall Islands
Marsden, T. W.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Marseilles: local provisional, France, 1944
Marshall & Moulton’s Express: private mail and parcel delivery firm serviced Boston and Beverly Farms, Mass., used labels, 1891-89
Marshall, Henry H. Delivery: parcel delivery firm serviced Halifax; used a stamp, year unknown
Marshall Inseln: 1: overprint on stamps of Germany for Marshall Islands as a German colony. 2: inscription for Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands: north of Gilbert islands, West Pacific Ocean; 1885-1914: German colony, 1897: purchased from Spain, stamps of Germany overprinted “Marschall Inseln,” 1899: stamps of Germany overprinted “Marshall Inseln,” 1914: occupied by Japan, Japanese stamps used, 1914-15: stamps of Marshall islands overprinted “G.R.I.,” for British/New Zealand occupation of New Britain, 1945: under U.S. trusteeship, U.S. stamps used. 1947: U.S. post offices established in the U. S. Trust Territories of the Pacific Ocean, 1979: bogus stamps produced in Japan, 1984: U. S. Trust Territory, islands issued their own stamps with USPS carrying the mail, 1985, Feb. 15: first air mail stamps, 1986, Oct. 21: became a Federation as a Sovereign State in Compact of Free Association with the U.S., 1996, July 1: first semi-postal stamp
Marshallöarna: (Swed.) the Marshall Islands
Marshall øerne: (Dan.) Marshall Islands
Marshall-Szigetek: (Hung.) the Marshall Islands
Marsh’s Express: local delivery firm serviced Boston, Mass and Nashua, N.H.; used a circular label; year unknown
Mars, S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built around 1850s, for middle or upper Danube lines
Martapoera: Sumatra local post overprint, Japanese occupation, 1942-45
Marten’s City Express: private parcel firm serviced New York City; used a label, year unknown
Marti: (Rom.) Tuesday
Martie: (Rom.) March (month)
Martinique: island in lesser Antilles of West Indies; 1886: overprint and surcharge on stamps of French Colonies, 1892: Martinique inscription of stamps of French Colonies, 1915, May 15: first semi-postal stamp, 1927, Oct. 10: first postage due stamp, 1945: first air mail stamp, 1947, Jan. 1: became Department of France, French stamps used
Martin Mills Local Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Martin’s City Post: 1858-60, Charleston, S.C.; see Carriers’ Stamps
Martorell: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Martorelles de Baix: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Martos: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Marts: (Dan.) March (month)
Mary-El: 2002, Jan. 14: illegal labels, purporting to be stamps, Russian Federation report to the UPU; not valid for postage
Maryland: 1: first federal issue revenue of US, July 1, 1798-Feb. 28, 1801. 2: second federal revenue issue, May 1, 1818-March 7, 1819. 3: supervisors seal revenue, March 2, 1799
Maryland Match Co.: see Private die match proprietary stamps
Maryport & Carlisle Railway Company: British railway local post
Mary Rose Woolshops: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
M A S: (Latin) Memento Audere Semper (Remember Always to be Daring) motto used as overprint of stamps of Yugoslavia for Fiume, 1941
Masakinannullering: (Dan.) machine cancellation
Maschinenfrankatur: (Ger.) frank
Mask: piece of paper or thin card with a hole cut out, used to hide portions of a die block which was not to be printed in the process of printing a die proof
Maskinfrankostempel: (Dan.) postage meter tape (stamp)
Maskinprovtryck: (Swed.) machine proofs
Mason-Dixon Line: boundary line between Pennsylvania and Maryland, extended to West Virginia, known as separating the North from the South
Mason’s New Orleans City Express: U.S. local post, New Orleans, La., 1850-57
Mason-Worley Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Masqat: also known as Muscat, Oman
Mass.: abbreviation for Massachusetts prior to Zip Code usage
Massa C.: (It.) Massa Carrara (Tuscany) pre-adhesive postmark
Massachusetts: 1: colonial embossed revenue tax stamp; 1755-57. 2: first federal issue revenue of US, July 1, 1798-Feb. 28, 1801. 3: supervisors’ seal revenue, March 2, 1799
Massaoua: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1868-82, Overseas Offices, Eritrea
Massenware: (Ger.) large quantities of stamps; wholesale lots
Master die: used in the embossing process and refers to original engraving in recess
Master die proof: print made from the original produced die that is the master from which printing plates are created
Master Item Numbers: (designated by the USPS); 1000 Series: definitive, Priority and Express Mail sheet stamps. 2000 Series: stationery items such as aerograms, stamped cards and envelopes, souvenir cards. 3000 Series: migratory bird stamps, international reply coupons, money orders. 4000 Series: commemorative stamps. 5000 Series: special issues such as Christmas, flag, love, airmail, ATM, penalty mail stamps. 6000 Series: booklets. 7000 series: regular and precanceled coils. 8000, 9000 Series: philatelic products
Master plate: completed printing surface with multiple subjects from which a mold is made
Mat: 1. a hard rubber printing plate that is used to apply precancels, surcharges, etc. on stamps. 2. (Dan., Rom.) pale, dull (as referencing the color of a postage stamp)
Matabeleland: local post, Rhodesia, 1894
Matæblegrøn: (Dan.) pale light apple-green (color)
Matahne: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1879-82
Matai: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1879-84
Matam: (Sp.) Matamoroa (Mexico) pre-adhesive postmark
Mataria: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1882
Matasellado: (Sp.) cancelled
Matasello: (Sp.) cancellation, postmark, mark placed on a stamp by a postal authority to deface the stamp and prevent its reuse
Matasello circular con fecha: (Sp.) circular date stamp
Matasello de barras: (Sp.): barred cancel; with stripes
Matasello de (complacencia) favor: (Sp.): canceled to order, stamps canceled by postal authorities without having been used for postage
Matasello falso: (Sp.) forged cancel
Matasello de fecha: (Sp.) postmark containing the date
Matasello de mano: (Sp.) handstamp
Matasello de manuscrito: (Sp.) manuscript cancel
Matasello de primer dia: (Sp.) first day cancel
Matasello especial: (Sp.) special cancellation
Matasello falso: (Sp.) forged cancel
Matasellos Franceses: (Sp.) French postmarks found on stamps issued 1860-75, including the Carlist issues
Matasello numérico: (Sp.) numerical cancel
Matasello parlante: (Sp.) slogan postmark
Matasello perfectamente centrado: (Sp.) socked on the nose
Matblå: (Dan.) pale blue, dull blue (color)
Matblågrøn: (Dan.) pale blue-green, dull blue-green (color)
Matbrun: (Dan.) pale brown, dull brown (color)
Match and Medicine Facsimiles: 1883; proprietary tax repealed and manufacturers continued the labels for publicity purposes; “U.S. Internal Revenue” inscription not used
Match and Medicine stamps: see Private die proprietary stamps.
Matched pair: some of the plates used for the 1840 Penny Black stamps, were later used to print the Penny Red issues; known as a matched pair when collected each with same lettering and from the same plate
Matched plate blocks: collected by plate number specialist who assembles a set of plate number blocks-of-four, with the same number, one from each corner of the original pane
Matched Set: Matched Plate Blocks
Matches: see Private die match proprietary stamps
Match stamps: revenue stamps used for collecting a match tax; see Private die match proprietary stamps
Matgrå: (Dan.) pale grey, dull grey (color)
Matgrågrøn: (Dan.) pale grey-green, dull grey-green (color)
Matgrøn: (Dan.) pale green, dull green (color)
Matgul: (Dan.) pale yellow, dull yellow (color)
Matgulbrun: (Dan.) pale yellow-brown, dull yellow-brown (color)
Matgulgrøn: (Dan.) pale yellow-green, dull yellow-green (color)
Matlilla: (Dan.) pale lilac, dull lilac (color)
Matlillarød: (Dan.) pale lilac-red, dull lilac-red (color)
Matmosgrøn: (Dan.) pale moss-green, dull moss-green (color)
Matorange: (Dan.) pale orange, dull orange (color)
Matorangerød: (Dan.) pale orange-red, dull orange-red (color)
Matpurpur: (Dan.) pale purple, dull purple (color)
Matpurpurrød: (Dan.) pale purple-red, dull purple-red (color)
Matrice: (Fr.) die; a block of metal that has been hand or machine engraved from which plates are prepared to print stamps
Matrix: a die or mold used to duplicate an original die
Matriz: (Sp.) see Matrix
Matrød: (Dan.) pale red, dull red (color)
Matrødorange: (Dan.) pale red-orange, dull red-orange (color)
Matrosa: (Dan.) pale rose, pale pink; dull pink, dull pink (color)
Matrosarød: (Dan.) pale rose-red, dull rose-red (color)
Matt: (Nor., Swed.) pale, dull (as referencing the color of a postage stamp)
Matt äpplegrön: (Swed.) dull apple-green (color)
Matt blå: (Swed.) dull blue (color)
Matt blåakt grön: (Swed.) dull bluish-green (color)
Matt blågrön: (Swed.) dull blue-green (color)
Matt blålila: (Swed.) dull blue-lilac (color)
Matt blå-djust mattblå: (Swed.) dull blue-light dull blue (color)
Matt brun: (Swed.) dull brown (color)
Matt brunfiolett: (Nor.) dark brown-violet (color)
Matt brunrød: (Nor.) dark brown-red (color)
Matteblå: (Nor.) pale blue, dull blue (color)
Matteplegrønn: (Nor.) pale apple green, dull apple-green (color)
Mattfiolett: (Nor.) pale violet, dull violet (color). Mattfiolettblå: (Nor.) pale violet-blue, dull violet-blue (color)
Matt grå: (Swed.) dull grey (color)
Matt grågrön: (Swed.) dull grey-green (color)
Mattgrön: (Swed.) dull green (color)
Matt gul: (Swed.) dull yellow (color)
Matt gulbrun: (Swed.) dull yellow-brun (color)
Matt gulgrön: (Swed.) dull yellow-green (color)
Matt gulorange-mattgul: (Swed.) dull yellow-orange – dull yellow (color)
Matthews (H.) Express: private mail delivery firm serviced New York State and parts of Canada; used a label, 1845
Mattkarmin (Nor., Swed.) pale carmine, dull carmine (color)
Mattlila: (Swed.) dull lilac (color)
Matt lilabrun: (Swed.) dull lilac-brown (color)
Matt lilabröd: (Swed.) dull lilac-red (color)
Mattlilla: (Nor.) pale lilac, dull lilac (color)
Mattlillabrun: (Nor.) pale lilac-brown, dull lilac-brown (color)
Mattlillarød: (Nor.) pale lilac-red, dull lilac-red (color)
Matt ljusröd: (Swed.) dull light red (color)
Matt olivakt gul: (Swed.) dull olivish-yellow (color)
Mattorange: (Swed.) dull orange (color)
Matt orangebrun: (Swed.) dull orange-brown (color)
Matt orangegul: (Swed.) dull orange-yellow (color)
Mat Tran Dan Toc Giai: National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, inscription on stamps for North Viet Nam
Mattrød: (Nor.) pale red, dull red (color)
Mattröd: (Swed.) dull red (color)
Mattrødfiolett: (Nor.) pale red-violet, dull red-violet (color)
Mattrosa: (Swed.) dull rose (color)
Matt ultramin: (Swed.) dull ultramarine (color)
Matt ultraminakt-blå: (Swed.) dull ultramarinish-blue (color)
Matt violett: (Swed.) dull violet (color)
Matt violettröd: (Swed.) dull violet-red (color)
Maturin: local provisional, Venezuela, 1903
Matviolet: (Dan.) pale violet, dull violet (color)
Matvioletrød: (Dan.) pale violet-red, dull violet-red (color).
Matyas Kiraly S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built around 1850s, for middle Danube lines
Mauge: (Fr.) Maubeuge (France) pre-adhesive postmark
Mauger, Victor E and Petrie: U.S. private die playing card stamp
Mauretanien: (Swed.) Mauritania
Mauriac: French local provisional post,1944
Maurice: (Fr.) Mauritius
Mauricio: (Sp.) Mauritius
Mauritania: French protectorate in north-west Africa; 1903: French protectorate, stamps of Senegal used, 1906: first stamps, postage due stamp, 1915: first semi-postal stamp, 1920: French colony, 1940, Feb. 8: first air mail stamp, 1945-59: used stamps of French West Africa between being a colony and a republic, 1946: became on overseas Department of France, 1958, Nov. 28: Islamic Republic of Mauritania proclaimed, 1960, Nov. 28: issued own commemorative, 1961, June 30: air mail stamps, 1961, July 1: issued official stamp, 1962: issued semi-postal stamps, 1967, Mar.22: joined UPU, 1976: annexed part of Spanish Sahara, but gave it to Morocco
Mauritanie: (Fr.) Mauritania, as a French colony and a republic
Mauritius: Indian Ocean island; 1810: British control, first British colony to issue stamps, 1847, Sept. 21: first stamps, issued famous “Post Office ” error instead of “Post Paid,” 1849: used three concentric circles as cancel, 1850-68: used two concentric circles as cancel, 1874-77: used stamps of Great Britain, 1933: first postage due stamp, 1967: self-government, 1968, Mar. 12: first stamps as independent state, 1969, Aug. 29: joined UPU
Mauritius: The Last Dodo, Mauritian Okapi, Rodrigues Leopard inscriptions; unissued Great Britain cinderellas by David Horry, 2001
Maurits Holmberg: (Fin.) local post for use on steamships carrying mail, Finland, 1890s
Maurituis: spelling error of Mauritius on position 8 of an engraving sheet
Mauritus: spelling error of Mauritius on position 9 of an engraving sheet
Maxikarten: (Ger.) maximum card
Maximas: (Sp.) maximum cards
Maximikort: (Swed.) maximum cards
Maximaphilately: the study of maximum cards, see Maximum cards
Maximum card: a picture post card that has an illustration, stamp and cancel all with a common theme
Maximumkarte: (Ger.) maximum card
Mayfield Milk Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Mayflower mail: a 1957 replica of the Pilgrim’s Mayflower carried souvenir envelopes, postmarked on board
Mayflower Post (GB to USA): United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971 (Fr.) Mayenne (France) pre-adhesive postmark
Mayorista: (Sp.) wholesaler
Mayotte: island between Madagascar and Africa; 1892, Nov.: issued own stamps as French colony, 1914: became dependency and used stamps of Madagascar, 1950: first issues of Comoro Archipelago, 1975: became an overseas department of France, had own issues, 1976, Feb: used stamps of Comoro Archipelago due to not having French stamps, 1997, Jan. 2: “Mayotte” overprint on stamps of France, 1997, Mar. 1: first air mail stamp
Mayotte et Nossi-Be: unissued for Madagascar, 1943
Mayreau Island: St. Vincent Grenadines; 1976: stamps first issued,
Mazagan: Morocco local post, 1897
Mazagan / Azemour / Marakech: Morocco local post, 1891-98
Mazagan / Marrakech: 1: Moroccan local post, 1891-98. 2: Anglo-Italian Consular post, 1897-99
Mazagon a Marakech: Sultanate of Morocco, Mazagan to Marakech, local issue, may be bogus, 1893
Mazagon a Moroc: Sultanate of Morocco, Mazagan to Morocco, local issue, may be bogus, 1891
Mazbata: passports (Turk.); French Colonies revenue inscription
Mazedonien: (Ger.) Macedonia; German supported Bulgarian seceding state, unofficial, 1944
M.B.: 1: Minimum bid. 2: Scott Catalog Number prefix for Military Semi-postal (Austria, etc.) 3: movable box; see Boite mobile
Mbala: formerly Abercorn, Zambia
M.B.: Marine Board, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74
MB: (Swed.) Mottagningbevis
M-Bag: bag used for mailing large amounts of printed matter to a single international address
M B D: Military Border District; newspaper tax stamps in Croatian-Slovenian Military Border
M B D: in oval, India Official overprint for Feudatory State, Nandgaon, initials of ruler, 1893-95
Mbledhja(e) Kushtetuese 12-IV-1939 XVII: (It.) Constituent Assembly 12 IV 1939, overprint on 1939 stamps of Albania for the 17th year of Fascist rule in Italy, 1939
Mbretnija Shqyptare: inscription on stamps of Italy for occupation of Albania
M C: 1: Scott Catalog Number prefix for Military Air Post. 2: auction abbreviation term for Machine Cancel; Maltese Cross
M C A: watermarked: Multiple Crown CA
M.C. College Stamp: business school, Montreal, c1866
McCoy: fantasy issue for bogus island in the Pacific
McCullough, J.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
McDonald Territory: labels produced for 11,000 residents of an area in Missouri that wanted to secede from the U. S. when they were left out of a Missouri vacation guide, May 1, 1961
M C E: Scott Catalog Number prefix for Military Airmail Special Delivery (Italy)
McGreeley’s Express: U.S. local post, between Dyea and Skaguay, Alaska, 1898
McIntire’s City Express Post: 1: U.S. local post, New York, N. Y., 1859-61. 2: S. Allan Taylor label
McKenzie’s Parcel Delivery and Express Co.: private parcel firm serviced an unknown area; used a label simulating a stamp; year unknown
McKinley postal card: the full-face card was ordered destroyed on April 29, 1902, but a box of 500 cards was shipped to the New York post office, who sold them to a firm, who, had them printed with their address for progress reports of their garbage scows’ daily dumping
McLean, Dr. J. H.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
McMillan Aerial Expedition: 1931, inscription; “Boston to Iceland via Labrador and Greenland,” privately prepared for a proposed flight which did not take place
McMillan’s City Dispatch Post: U.S. local post, Chicago, Ill. 1855
McNeel, A. W.: postmaster issued Confederate Postmaster’s provisional
McNish, W. D.: postmaster issued Confederate Postmaster’s provisional
McRobish & Co.: fictitious steamship company label purported to have operated between Acapulco and San Francisco, 1860s
M D: 1: USPS abbreviation for Maryland. 2: Minor defects. 3: auction abbreviation for topical medical
M.D.G.A.: Ministerium der Geistlichen Angelgenheiten (Prussian) disinfection mark on cholera letters
MDI Booklets: booklets produced by Minnesota Diversified Industries with 15 stamps, blue cardboard covers
ME: 1: Mail early. 2: Scott Catalog Number prefix Military Special Delivery (Italy).3: USPS abbreviation for Maine
Meadon and Company: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
MeadWestvaco: USPS printer for stamped envelopes
Mearis’ City Despatch Post: U.S. local post, Baltimore, Md., 1846
Measnes: French provisional local post, 1944
Mecanofilia: (Sp.) collecting slogan postmarks
Mécanophile: (Fr.) slogan postmark
Mecanotelia: (Sp.) collecting meter marks
Mecca: also known as Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Mecca, Sherifate of: Saudi Arabia, 1916-18
Mechanical: name given to postcards that have moving parts
Mechanical fiber or pulp: usually denotes any pulp containing lignin and other impurities, as opposed to freesheet or “woodfree” pulp
Mechanical stampers: treadle operated devices that echo the action of a handstamp as used by a postal clerk; devised by Pearson Hill, son of Rowland Hill
Mechanick, Bernard: 1963; invented the concept of the gold foil stamps of Tonga
Mecklenb Strelitz: Mecklenburg Strelitz, German State, 1864-67
Mechanischen: (Ger.) machine cancel
Mecklenburg-Schwerin: German State, located in northern Germany; 1856, July 1: first stamps; 1868, Jan.1: stamps of the German Confederation, 1871: stamps of the German Empire, 1945: stamps of the German Democratic Republic
Mecklenburg-Strelitz: German State, located in northern Germany; 1856: stamps of Mecklenburg-Schwerin valid for postage, 1864: first stamps, 1868, Jan. 1: stamps of the German Confederation, 1871: stamps of the German Empire, 1945: stamps of the German Democratic Republic
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: also called Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; 1945: issued local stamps and semi-postals under Russian occupation
M.E.D.: Metro Emergency Dispatch; local, Canada postal strike, 1973-74
med.: medium
Med: (Swed.) with
Medallion: a design used as a decoration on commemorative envelopes, not a postmark
Medallion portrait: when both a view and portrait are in the same design, the portrait is called a medallion portrait
Medallions: nickname given to the 1850-65 issues of Belgium due to their medallion-style portrait of Leopold I
Medelhav: (Swed.) Mediterranean Sea
Medellin: town in Colombia; 1888, 1903-04, 1909-14: Colombia local issue, City of Medellin; known as the Medellin issue
Med Enad Kraft Mot Yttre Våld: (Swed.) “With United Strength Against Outside Forces” on propaganda labels for Swedish volunteers serving with Finnish armed forces
Media, Medio: (Sp.) half values on official of Spain, 1854-55, and other Spanish language nations
Media luna: (Sp.) Crescent
Media Mail: USPS term as of Jan. 7, 2001; formerly called Book Rate, then Special Standard Mail
Medianil: (Sp.) gutter
Media Onza: (Sp.) (one-half ounce) inscription on official stamps of Spain, 1854-63
Medicamentos: (Sp.) found on fiscals used for payment of duty on medicines
Medical Congress: common design on stamps of Portugal and Colonies, 1952 for First National Congress of Tropical Medicine, Lisbon
Medicine stamps: U.S. revenue stamps used for collecting a medicine tax
Medina, Saudi Arabia: also known as Al Madinah; 1925: overprint on railway tax stamps of Hejaz for use in Medina
Mediodia: (Sp.) Madrid railway station, used in postmarks
Medio Real: currency unit in Dominican Republic
Medis: French local provisional, 1944
Meditisk: (Czech.) line engraving, intaglio, photo engraving, taile douce
Medway Mail: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Meerane: (Courier) German local post, 1893
Meerbeck: displaced persons camp, local post, 1945, 1947
M.E.F.: Middle East Forces; 1942: overprint on stamps of Great Britain, Offices Abroad in Africa; Cyrenaica, Dodecanese, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia, 1950: valid for use in Great Britain
Meget godt eks: (Dan.) very fine copy
Meghatalmazas: (Hung.) authorization overprint on obsolete stamps of Hungary
Megsemmisittéssel Módosított Példányszám: (Hung.) the quantity of stamps reduced due to the destruction of excess stocks
Megszállas, Albán: (Hung.) Albanian occupation
Megszállas, Arad Francia: (Hung.) refers to the 1919 stamp issues during the French occupation of Arad (q.v.), Hungary
Megszállas, Ausztráliai: (Hung.) Australian occupation
Megszállas, Bánát-Bácska a Szerb és a Román Helycsere Között: (Hung.) refers to the Hungarian Bánát region (now within Romania and Yugoslavia, except for a small portion near Szeged) and Bácska county, Hungary. Issued postage stamps in 1919 by the Temesvár (q.v.) postal authorities during the Serbian occupation; the stamps were available for postage, but were used primarily to pay the postal employees salaries
Megszállas, Baranya Szerb: (Hung.) Serbian occupation of Baranya (q.v.), Hungary, stamp issues
Megszállas, Baranya Serb I: (Hung.) refers to the first 1919 stamp issues during the Serbian occupation of Baranya (q.v.), Hungary
Megszállas, Baranya Szerb II: (Hung.) refers to the second 1919 stamp issues during the Serbian occupation of Baranya (q.v.), Hungary
Megszállas, Belga: (Hung.) Belgian occupation
Megszállas, Brit: (Hung.) British occupation
Megszállas, Bulgár: (Hung.) Bulgarian occupation
Megszállas, Csehszlovák: (Hung.) Czechoslovakian occupation
Megszállas, Dán: (Hung.) Danish occupation
Megszállas, Debrecen Román: (Hung.) refers to the Romanian occupation of Debrecen (q.v.), Hungary, stamp issues
Megszállas, Debrecen Román I: (Hung.) refers to the first (1919) stamp issues during the Romanian occupation of Debrecen (q.v.), Hungary
Megszállas, Debrecen Román II: (Hung.) refers to the second (1920) stamp issues during the Romanian occupation of Debrecen (q.v.), Hungary
Megszállas, Délvidéki Szerb: (Hung.) Serbian occupation of South Hungary
Megszállas, Észt: (Hung.) Estonian occupation
Megszállas, Finn: (Hung.) Finnish occupation
Megszállas, Francia: (Hung.) French occupation
Megszállas, Horvát: (Hung.) Croatian occupation
Megszállási Kiadások: (Hung.) occuption (stamp) issues
Megszállas, Japán: (Hung.) Japanese occupation
Megszállas, Jugoszláv: (Hung.) Jugoslavian occupation
Megszállas, Kinai: (Hung.) Chinese occupation
Megszállas, Lengyel: (Hung.) Polish occupation
Megszállas, Lett: (Hung.) Latvian occupation
Megszállas, Litván: (Hung.) Lithuanian occupation
Megszállas, Magyarországi Román: (Hung.) Romanian Occupation of Hungary
Megszállas, Magyarországi Szerb: (Hung.) Serbian Occupation of Hungary
Megszállas, Mexikói: (Hung.) Mexican occupation
Megszállas, Norvég: (Hung.) Norwegian occupation
Megszállas, Olosz: (Hung.) Italian occupation
Megszállas, Orosz: (Hung.) Russian occupation
Megszállas, Osztrák: (Hung.) Austrian occupation
Megszállas, Portugál: (Hung.) Portuguese occupation
Megszállas, Spanyol: (Hung.) Spanish occupation
Megszállas, Svéd: (Hung.) Swedish occupation
Megszállas, Szerb: (Hung.) Serbian occupation
Megszállas, Szlovák: (Hung.) Slovakian occupation
Megszállas, Szovjet: (Hung.) Soviet (USSR) occupation
Megszállas, Thaiföld: (Hung.) Thai occupation
Megszállas, Török: (Hung.) Turkish occupation
Megszállas, Ukrán: (Hung.) Ukrainian occupation
Megszállt Terúletek: (Hung.) occupied territories
Mehalek: currency unit in Ethiopia
Mehrfach: (Ger.) multiple
Mehrfarbig: (Ger.) multicolor
Meissen: 1. (Druckschriften-und Circular-Beforderung) German local post, 1890-91. 2. local post, German Democratic Republic, 1945-46
Méjico: (Sp.) inscription on stamps of Mexico 1856-64.
Mekeel’s: founded in 1891, the world’s oldest continuing stamp weekly (2004)
Mekinez: (Cherifen Posts) Morocco local frank, 1892
Mekka: bogus issue for Mecca. Melaka: Malacca
Mektab Hekouk: Bureau of Justice; French Colonies revenue inscription
Melat-I-Kazerun 1335: National Committee of Kazerun, overprint on stamps of Persia (Iran), used for two weeks in January 1917, unofficial
Melayi: Malaya
Melbourne: Australian local post: 1: (City Express Messenger) 1894-1910. 2: (Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board) 1942-45. 3: (Melbourne Emergency Mailing Service) strike post, 1968
Melgaard Local Post: Horsens – Melgaard Local Post
Melilla: 1: (Sp.) military label designating free postage for Spanish troops stationed in Morocco, 1893-94. 2: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, Republican, 1936-38
Melitopol: local post, Russian Zemstvo, 1867-78
Melkeblå: (Nor.) milky-blue (color)
Melkoransje: (Nor.) milky-orange (color)
Melksham Free Mail: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Mellan Kongo : (Swed.) Middle Congo
Mellaoui: Egypt, see Interpostal seals, 1872-82
Mellemamerika: (Dan.) Central America
Mellemcongo: (Dan.) Middle Congo
Mellemlitauen: (Dan.) Central Lithuania
Mellersta Congo: (Swed.) Middle Congo
Mellom Amerika: (Nor.) Central America
Mellom Litauen: (Nor.) Central Lithuania
Mélynnyomás: (Hung.) photogravure
Mélyvörös: (Hung.) deep red (color)
Mem: auction abbreviation term for Memorabilia
Memel: Lithuanian port on the Baltic Sea; 1867-pre: Prussia, 1868-71: North German Confederation, 1871-1918: German Empire, 1920-Feb. 23: overprint on stamps of occupying France,”Memel” overprint, 1920, Aug. 1: “Memel Gebiet” overprint on stamps of Germany; governed by the Commission of the Allied and Associated Powers, French and German stamps used concurrently, 1921, July 6: first air mail stamp, 1923, Jan. 10: invaded by Lithuania, renamed Klaipeda, “Klaipeda Memel” overprint provisionals issued, 1924: first commemorative stamp by Lithuania, 1939: restored to Germany, 1945: became part of the Soviet Union, Russian stamps used
Memel Gebiet: overprint on stamps of Germany for Memel District
Memel Klaipeda: overprint, Memel, Lithuanian occupation, 1923
Memelland: German local post, Memel, 1939.
Memelområde: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Memel
Memelområde: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Memel
Memphis, Tenn Paid 2, Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Menant& Co.’s Express: 1: U.S. local post, New Orleans, La. c1853. 2: S. Allan Taylor label
Menda: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 137
Mendicidad: (Sp.) found on local and semi-postal stamps of Civil war era; funds raised for relief of vagrancy
Mendocino, State of: proposed secessionist issue for Northern California
Menge: currency unit in Outer Mongolia
Mengibar: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Mengkiang: aka Inner Mongolia; 1941-45: Japanese occupation
Mengtsze: see Mongtze. Menorca: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Mensajerias: (Sp.) overprint and inscription for Uruguay, special delivery
Mensajerias Gaditanas: (Sp.) letter carriers of Cadiz during first half of the 19th century
Menzel’s Express: private parcel firm serviced Brooklyn and New York City, N.Y; used a label, year unknown
M E P S I: Mexico Elmhurst Philatelic Society International, USA
Mercado & Seully: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Mercantile Corp.: manufacturer of early 20th century stamped envelopes and wrappers
Mercantile envelopes: 1907-15; manufactured by the Mercantile Corporation
Mercantile Library Association: U.S. local book post, New York, N. Y., 1870-75
Merchant’s Delivery & Storage Company: private parcel and baggage firm serviced Cleveland, Ohio area; used a label, year unknown
Merchant’s Delivery Co.: private parcel firm serviced an unknown area; used a stamp; year unknown
Merchant’s Express Company.: private parcel firm serviced St. Louis, Mo., used a circular label; year unknown
Merchant’s 5¢ Parcel Delivery Co.: private parcel delivery firm serviced the Boston, Mass. area; used stamps, 1894-98
Merchant’s Gargling Oil: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Merchant’s Parcel Delivery Co.: private parcel delivery firm serviced the Boston, Mass. area; used labels, 1899-1902
Merchant’s Parcel Delivery Co. Incorporated: private parcel delivery firm serviced the Chicago, Ill. area; used stamps, 1882-1902
Merchant’s Parcel Delivery Co.-MD: private parcel delivery firm serviced the Baltimore, Md. area; used stamps, year unknown
Merchant’s Parcel Delivery Incorporated: private parcel delivery firm serviced the Seattle, Wash. area; used labels, year unknown
Merchant’s Rapid Delivery: private parcel delivery firm serviced an unknown area; used labels, year unknown
Merchant’s Special Delivery Co.: private parcel delivery firm serviced an unknown area; used a label, year unknown
Merchant’s Union Express Co.: private parcel delivery firm serviced the northern states; used corner cards, labels and stamps, 1861-68
Mercury: originated as a U.S. post office symbol in 1782 by PMG Ebenezer Hazard, design modified in1808 and again in 1824, changed in 1837; see: Eagle, Post rider
Mercury and W. Herald: private parcel firm serviced an unknown area; used a label; year unknown
Mercury Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Mercury Postal Birmingham: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Mercury Postal London: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Mercuries: term for the 1851 journal or newspaper stamps of Austria
Merdeka Djojakarta 6 du Juli 1949: overprint used during the blockade of Indonesia by the Netherlands prior to Indonesia gaining independence
Mereyside Mail Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Merida: 1: local post, Venezuela, 1881. 2: provisional issue, Yucatan, Mexico, 1916
Merkur: (Ger.) Mercury, inscription on Aachen local stamps, 1895
Merkur Privat-Stadt-Brief-und Packet-Beforderung: Flensburg; German local, 1897-1900
Merlin: USPS term for Mailing Evaluation, Readability and Lookup Instrument; a mail verification system to verify customer letter and presort mailings
Merritt & Co.: private parcel firm serviced Boston and Salem, Mass.; used labels; 1869?
Merry Christmas 1975: U. S. non-denominated postage stamp, value 10¢, 1975
Merry Widow: nickname for the helmet of the 10¢ green Mercury Special Delivery stamp of 1908, since it resembled women’s hats of that era
Merseburg: (Courier) German local post, 1893
Mersina: Egypt, see Interpostal Seals, 1871, Ottoman Empire
Merson: term for the large 1900 high value stamps of France designed by Luc-Olivier Merson
Mesa: (It.) Messina (Sicily) pre-adhesive postmark
Mesagerie: (Rom.) parcel post
Mesh: 1: the pattern of short, parallel, elongate depression lines that one can microscopically on the back of a stamp. They are formed from the overlapping of warp and weft wires making up the mesh (support) on which machine-made paper is made. As a result, a stamp paper has either vertical or horizontal mesh, depending on the direction of the mesh lines. Mesh direction can have a profound effect on design dimensions, especially of recess printed stamps. 2: descriptive of a watermark
Mesick’s Express: private baggage firm serviced New York City; used a label, year unknown
Mesopotamia: located in Western Asia; 1915: occupied by Great Britain, used India stamps overprinted “I.E.F.,” 1917: “Baghdad in British Occupation” overprint on stamps of Turkey, 1920, April 25, British mandate over Iraq, including Mesopotamia, 1920: “On State Service” overprint on stamps of Iraq for Official use, 1932: mandate terminated, became Kingdom of Iraq. see Iraq, Mosul
Mesopotamien: (Swed.) Mesopotamia
Messagerie Auto-Gérée: local, Canadian Union of Postal Workers strike, 1975
Messageries Maritimes: Pacific mailboats
Messenger’s Express: private parcel firm serviced Boston and Chelsea, Mass., used a label; year unknown
Messenkop’s Union Square Post Office: U.S. local post, New York, N. Y., 1849
Messico: (It.) Mexico
Messinger, A.: see Private die match proprietary stamps
Metal currency stamps: stamps that could only be bought for gold or silver; stamps of Peru overprinted “Plata” (silver in Spanish) in 1880 or Greek stamps overprinted AM (Axia Metallike) metal value, used on foreign parcels which had to be prepaid at the “gold” exchange rate
Metalik, Metallik: currency unit in Crete, Russian Sphere of Administration Dist.of Rethymnon
Metelin, Mitilini, Mytilene: City on Lesbos in the Aegean Sea; 1909-10: overprint on stamps of Russia, Offices in Turkey, for 50th anniversary of Russian post offices in Turkish Empire, 1912: occupied by Greece; stamps of Turkey overprinted, WW II: occupied by Italy, now part of Greece
Metelino: Egypt, see Interpostal Seals, 1868, Overseas Offices, Aegean Islands
Metallic cachet: design printed on a very thin sheet of metal and then affixed to a cover
Metallic ink: gold and silver inks, bronze-gold first used in Switzerland in 1867-82 and gold ink used in Holland in 1867-71; currently used in multicolor offset and photogravure printing
Meter: machine of imprint of such machine that imprints evidence of payment of postage
Meter cancellation: a postage fee and cancel applied by a machine to a piece of mail
Meter cancellation, commemorative: postally valid imprint which features a pictorial, or non-pictorial, advertisement or announcement of sponsoring organization
Metered mail: mail franked with an impression from an automatic machine which records payment of postage and requires no stamps
Meter frank: an impression made by machinery on items to be mailed, which takes the place of stamps, usually includes origin, date, postage charge and meter number
Meter machine: installed in Oslo, Norway Sept. 1900, however, after mailing, postal authorities affixed adhesive stamps over the impressions, regarding them as verification of postage paid
Meter machines: Moss franking machines used in New Zealand, 1904
Meter machines, approved: sanctioned for international use by the Universal Postal Union, Jan. 1, 1922
Meter, postage: the mechanical or digital deice that creates a valid denominated postage imprint commonly known as a meter stamp
Meter slogan: portion to the left of the meter stamp that advertises a product or service
Meter stamp: postage meter frank that is licensed by a postal administration to print postage on envelopes
Metical: currency unit in Mozambique
Metropolitan & Great Central Joint Committee: British railway local post
Metropolitan Circular Delivery Co.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Metropolitan City Express Co.: private parcel serviced Chicago, Ill., area; used a stamp; year unknown
Metropolitan Errand & Carrier: U.S. local post, New York, N. Y., 1855-59
Metropolitan Post Office: U.S. local post, New York, N. Y., 1852-53
Metropolitan Railway: British railway local post
Mette & Kanne: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Metternich I, S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built 1839 for service in the Levant; renamed Wien
Metternich II, S.S.: paddle ship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built around 1840s for service in the lower Danube
Metz: German local post: 1: (Privat-Brief-Verkehr), 1886-89. 2: (Stadt-Brief-Beförderung), 1896
Metzger Post: Germany butchers guild, 12th century, carried the mail via horse; used a curved horn to announce arrival
Mevu, Republic of: Antarctic fantasy, 1972
Mex: (Sp.) Mexico, pre-adhesive postmark
MEX: international postal code for Mexico
Mexican Local Provisional Overprints: 1913-16: during the revolution, at least 36 cities made their own local overprints; The Stamps of the Mexican Revolution 1913-1916 by Nicholas Follansbee, 1996.Mexican war provisionals: handstamps used by U.S. Army postal services, 1846-48
Mexicky: (Czech.) Mexican
Mexico: Central American republic; 1856, Aug. 1: first stamps were imperforates, local issue for Tlacotalpan, 1867-76: provisional issues for Campecehe, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Cuautia, Cuernavaca and Guadalajara, 1875-79: Porte de Mar “Carried by Sea” inscription for amount of money to be paid to mail steamer captains for outgoing foreign mail, 1879, April 1: joined UPU, 1884-pre: all stamps were overprinted with the name of the district in which they were distributed, these include issues from Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Cuautla, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, etc. to prevent theft in transit to postmasters, 1884: first official stamp, 1908: first postage due stamp, 1913-15: civil war brought many provisional issues with handstamped overprints; Acambaro, Acaponeta, Aguascalientes, Allenda, Baja California, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juarez, Colima, Hermosillo, Leon, Mazatlan, Monterrey, Oaxac, Queretaro, Salamanca, San Luis Potosi, San Pedro de las Colonias, Sonora, Torreon, Viezca, and Zacatecas, 1914: U.S. occupation of Vera Cruz, April-November, 1915: general issues for country resumed, 1916: U.S. invervention in New Mexico, March 1916-January 1917, 1916: local issue for Merida, in Yucatan district, 1918, Dec. 25: first semi-postal stamp, Red Cross. 1922, Apr. 2: first air mail stamp, 1924: revolutionary local stamp issued in Yucatan, 1929: revolutionary local stamp issued in Sinaloa
Mexiko: (Czech.) Mexico
Mexikó: (Hung.) Mexico
Mexikói: (Hung.) Mexican
Mexique: (Fr.) Mexico
Meziarsí: (Czech.) gutter, gutter pair
Meziarsí Svislé: (Czech.) vertical gutter pair
Meziarsí Vodorovné: (Czech.) horizontal gutter pair
Mezinárodní Odpovedka: (Czech.) international reply card
Mezclado (dentados): (Sp.) mixed (perforations)
Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga: (Russ.) state foreign trade firm that handles philatelic material
Mezzaluna: (It.) crescent
Mezzo: (It.) half
MF: medium fluorescence
M F: 1: auction abbreviation for mixed franking. 2: Franc; currency unit in Madagascar
M.G.: Ministry of War, overprint on stamps of Argentina for official use
Mgl. Mängel: (Ger.) defect, fault
M H: 1: Great Britain Machine definitives. 2: Scott Catalog Number prefix for Machins (GB). Scott catalog number prefix to identify stamps other than standard postage. 3: USPS abbreviation for Marshall islands. 4: Ministry of Finance, overprint on stamps of Argentina for official use. 5. Montserrat: post office opeated by the U.S. military
M I: 1: USPS abbreviation for Michigan. 2: Marshall Islands, when used in a postmark. 3: early U.S. postmark; normally abbreviation for Mississippi. 4: Margin inscription. 5: auction abbreviation term for Michel stamp Catalogue
M I: Ministry of the Interior, overprint on stamps of Argentina for official use
Miasta Przedborza: (Pol.) Poland local post, town of Przedborz
Micanopy, Fla. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Mich.: abbreviation for Michigan prior to Zip Code usage
Michalla: Egypt, see Interpostal Seals, 1864-66
Michel: German language world-wide stamp catalog
Michel Catalogue Number: number assigned to a philatelic item by the German catalog publisher Michel, according to that publisher’s criteria for such assignment
Michigan: U.S. territory July 1, 1805, state Jan. 26, 1837; cut from Indiana Territory
Michigan Business and Normal College: Battle Creek, MI; used training stamps for practice instruction on how to properly address, frank and post a letter
Micronesia: formerly Caroline Islands 1899: Caroline Islands bought by Germany from Spain, see Caroline Islands, 1914: occupied by Japan, WWII: captured by the U.S., 1947: became part of the U.S. Trust Territory under U.S. administration, 1983: gained independence, 1984, July 12: first air mail and regular stamps, 1986, Nov. 3: a Federation as a Sovereign State in Compact of Free Association with the U.S
Microperf: usually contain hundreds of perforation holes per square inch
Micropost Oxford Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Microprinting: initials USPS or other words incorporated into the design but printed so small that they are not visible to the naked eye; originated in 1992 as a security device by postal administrations
Mic.T.: Michigan territory, pre-adhesive postmark
Mircurea: (Rom.) Wednesday
Middle Ages: A.D. 476 to approximately A.D. 1450
Middle Congo: Western Africa; 1907: own stamps, inscribed “Moyen Congo,” 1910: became a separate French colony from Chad and Ubangi-Shari, 1916: first semi-postal stamp, 1924: “Afrique Equatoriale Francaise” overprint on French Moyen Congo stamps, 1928: first postage due stamp, 1934: colonies of Chad, Gabon, Middle Congo and Ubangi-Shari grouped as French Equatorial Africa, 1939: Congo People’s Republic, Afrique Equatoriale Franciase, French Equatorial Africa
Middle East: refers to Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Yemen, Sudan, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and Yemen
Middle East Forces (M.E.F.): 1942: overprint on stamps of Great Britain for forces stationed in Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, 1942: first postage due stamp, 1943: overprint on stamps of Great Britain for forces stationed in Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, 1945: overprint on stamps of Great Britain for forces stationed in the Dodecanese
Middlefart: City on far NW portion of Fyn Island, Denmark, on the Little Belt strait ca. 105 miles W of Copenhagen. Site of the first postal flight in Northern Eusrope, Denmark : Middlefart-Fredericia Flight, 1911
Middlefart-Fredericia Flight: Denmark – Middlefart-Fredericia Flight, 1911
Middelhavet: (Nor.) Mediterranean Sea
Middelkongo: (Nor.) Middle Congo
Middlesbrough Mail: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Middlesbrough Relief P.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Middle West envelopes: manufactured by the Middle West Supply Co., 1915-28
Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway: British railway local post
Midland and South Western Junction Railway: British railway local post
Midland Design & Bldg.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Midland Great Western Railway: British railway local post
Midland Railway: British railway local post
Midland Red Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Midland Rocket Association: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Midnight Mail: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Miehle Press: 1: flat plate press first used at the BEP in 1894. 2: offset press used at the BEP in the 1970s
Mielec: city in former Austrian-occupied Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20
Mien-Chu: Southwest China local post (West Szechuen), 1949
Mien Nam: (Vietnamese) short for Cong Hoa Mien Nam Viet Nam, Republic of South Vietnam
Mien-Yang: Southwest China local post (West Szechuen), 1950
Migratory bird hunting and conservation stamp: a nonpostal stamp required by federal law for hunting ducks, geese, etc., sold on behalf of the Department of the Interior by selected post offices
Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp: Department of Agriculture; inscription on U. S. Internal Revenue Service tax stamps, 1934-38
Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp: Department of the Interior; inscription on U. S. Internal Revenue Service tax stamps, 1939-current
Mihon: (Japan) overprint in three characters for the specimen stamps of Japan and the Ryukyu Islands
Mijas: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1938
Milan: Italian local post, 1897
Milano: (Co. Nazionaldi Liberazione) Italian liberation local post, c1944
Mildenhall Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Mileage stamp: town handstamp indicating number of miles from London, Edinburgh or Dublin
Milesima de Escudo: currency unit in Spain, 1867-72
Milesima de Peso: currency unit in Spanish Colonies
Milesimo: currency unit in Uruguay
Milicia(s): (Sp.) militia, on stamps issued by the Republican government in1938 showing the militia in action
Milikin’s Express: private mail firm serviced areas in Maine; used a label; year unknown
Milit, Militar Post Portomarke: inscription on postage due stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1904-18
Militærfrimærke: (also Militærmærke) (Dan., Nor.) military postage stamp
Militærfrimerke: (Militærmerke) (Nor.) military postage stamp
Militærmærke: (Nor.) Militærfrimærke
Militærmærke: Militærmærke
Militærmerke: (Nor.) Militærfrimerke
Militaires Français Internés en Suisse-Gratis: (French Military Internees in Switzerland Free) Switzerland frank stamp 1871; applied to mail of French soldiers from the Bourbakis Army, interned in Switzerland during the Franco-Prussian war
Militära helsaker: (Swed.) military postal stationery
Militära tjänstebrevkort: (Swed.) military official postcards
Militärbrev: (Nor.) postage free for military on active duty
Militärbrevkort: (Swed.) Swedish military postcard, postage prepaid
Militärbrevsamlingar: (Swed.) military mail collections
Militärbrev utan svarsmärken: (Swed.) military letters without reply stamps
Militärkortbrev: (Swed.) military letter-cards
Militärpost: (Swed.) military mail, field post
Militar K.u.K. Post: inscription on stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austrian administration, 1912-1918
Militärpostal: (Swed.) military post; system of envelopes with reply stamps for use on correspondence from and to Swedish troop in effect since 1929
Militarpost Eilmarke: 1. (Ger.) Army Post, inscription on journal stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 2. (Ger.) surcharge in Italian currency, Austrian occupation of Italy, special handling, 1918
Militärpostmarke: (Ger.) military postage stamp
Militärschmuckmarken: vignettes from former Austrian-Hungarian territory
Military franchise stamps: stamps that permitted forces on active service to send mail free of postage
Military mail: mail during wartime or military campaigns in addition to regular military postal markings as applied by APO’s and FPO’s onto mail to and from military personnel and peacekeeping United Nations missions
Military Medal: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1952
Military post: special postmark for troops on active service
Military Postal Express Service: (M.P.E.S.) 1917; original name for the U.S. Army element handling the mail to and from the troops
Military postal history: date stamps and censorship markings of military post offices
Military post office: a branch of a USPS civilian post office, which falls under the jurisdiction of the New York, San Francisco, or other postmaster; operated by the Department of Defense; may be either an army post office (APO) that serves the Army or Air Force, or a fleet post office (FPO) that serves the Coast Guard, Navy or Marine Corps
Military post stamps: generally for use of active service troops, troops in the field
Military reply stamp: a stamp sent by a member of the armed forces to a correspondent to be used frank a reply at the domestic postal rate; used in Sweden 1929-51
Military stamps: stamps issued for use by a country’s military personnel
Military telegraphs: stamps with inscription “Military telegraphs” used by British troops in Egypt, Bechuanaland and Suakim in 1884-87
Mill, Milliemes: currency surcharge on stamps of France, Offices in Egypt, 1921-28
Mill: inscription on Egyptian general revenue issue, set of ten, 1939-49
Millbury postmasters’ provisional stamp: Asa H. Waters, postmaster, Millbury, Mass, 1846
Milledgeville, Ga. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Millésime: (Fr.) date (of the year); usually appears in sheet margins of France and Colonies stamps
Millieme: currency unit in Middle East countries
Millieme Anniversaire de Boali Sinai Balki: 1952 Afghanistan surcharge for 1000th anniversary of birth of Avicenna
Milligan: inventor of the flat-plate press used by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing until 1893, when it developed its own version
Millimeter: the thousandth part of a meter, usually abbreviated as “mm.”
Mills’ Free Despatch Post: U. S. local post, 1847
Milreis: currency unit in Angola, Angra, Azores, Brazil, and Portuguese colonies
Mils: currency unit in Egypt, Malta
Milton, N.C. paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
min.: minor
Mina-el-Kamh: Egypt, see Interpostal Seals, 1867-84
Minau: Antarctic fantasy
Mince: (Fr.) thin
Mincom: (Sp.) Ministry of Communications, Cuba
Mindelheim: German local post, 1945-46
Minderwertig: (Ger.) of lower value, inferior
Mineing Auction: the successful bidder shouts “Mine” when the lot is purchased
Mineral Wells, Texas: cinderella on stage coach trip to N.Y. World’s Fair; July 15, 1939
Minerva, Republic of: reefs near Tonga
Minglanilla: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Min-Hsien: Northwest China local post, 1949
Minia: Egypt, see Interpostal Seals, 1867-84
Miniark: (Dan.) Miniatureark
Miniature: name given to postcards that are about half the size of a standard card
Miniatureark: (also Miniark) (Dan.) miniature sheet
Miniature sheet (M/S): a single stamp or block of stamps with a paper margin on all sides often bearing some special wording or design
Miniature stamp: a small size stamp when compared with regular stamps
Minicabs Postal Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Mini Express Delivery: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Minimum bid (M B): 1: auction term the least amount the auction firm will accept. 2: starting bid
Mini Post, Hitchin: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971
Ministerie van verkeer en waterstaadt: (Flemish) Belgian revenue stamps, Department of Transportation and Waterways
Ministerio de Gobernacion: (Sp.) Home Office; government department
Ministerio de Hacienda: (Sp.) Treasury, government department
Minister proofs: stamp design has minor varieties from the actual stamp; in Belgium, given to high government officials; aka Black Proofs
Minkus: Minkus stamp catalog, produced by Krause Publications
Minn.: abbreviation for Minnesota prior to Zip Code usage
Minnesota: U.S. territory March 3, 1849; state May 11, 1858; formerly public domain as Iowa Territory
Minor varieties: a slight change in color, a break in the line of the design, or a speck on the stamp can be considered a “minor” variety
Minouf: Egypt, see Interpostal Seals, 1871-84
Mint: a stamp as issued by the government printing office with full original gum, unhinged and uncanceled
Mint, never hinged (MNH): stamp with undisturbed original gum
Mint set: a complete mint set of all stamps in a specific issue
Mint sheet (MS): a sheet of stamps in the original condition as issued by postal authorities
Mint sheet albums / files: books / files designed to hold full sheets of stamps in a protective sleeve
MINURSO: United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara, Finland and Norway, 1991-1996, monitor conditions between Morocco and local Polisario forcees who want the territory
Mir, Mira: (It.) Mirandola (Italy) pre-adhesive postmark
Mirditës: cinderella, autonomous regime in Albania, but it issued no stamps
Mirror image: a reverse impression
Mirror print: complete or part of a stamp design reversed as if being viewed in a mirror
Mis: early U.S. postmark; normally abbreviation for Mississippi
Mischfrankatur: (Ger.) mixed franking
Miscut: term used by some dealers to identify stamps that have been cut so that parts of adjoining designs or marginal markings, appear together in the space usually occupied by one design
Mise: (Fr.) (auction) bid
Mise-en-train: (Fr.) see Make-ready
Mise suggérée: (Fr.) suggested bid
Mishler Herb Bitters Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Mision Alba: (Alban.) military postmark used by Italian troops in Albania in 1997
Misperforation: poorly aligned perforations with respect to the finished design
Miss: early U.S. postmark; normally abbreviation for Mississippi
Miss.: abbreviation for Mississippi prior to Zip Code usage
Missent: marking explanation indicating that mailpiece was missent to the wrong town
Missent to Railway Post Office: first railroad postmark, Jan. 1838
Missing color or tagging: to qualify as an error, every last dot or trace of an intended color must be missing
Missing Virgin: nickname for the Virgin Islands issue of 1867-70 issue, found with the figure of the Virgin omitted
Missing watermark: term used for a stamp that should have a watermark, but for some reason, appears on paper without the watermark
Missionaries: term applied to the first typeset issues of Hawaii; named because they were found on letters sent by missionaries
Mission Militaire Francaise Aeronautique en Siberia: (Fr.) 1918 French Military Air Mission in Siberia
Mission mixture: an assortment of stamps on paper sold by the pound and usually collected by a charitable mission or institution; almost any form of bulk mixture
Mississippi: U.S. territory May 7, 1798, state Dec. 10, 1817, originally owned by Spanish and British
Missouri: U.S. Territory Dec. 7, 1812, state Aug. 10, 1821; created from Territory of Louisiana
Misstrike: postal stationery stamps impressed in the wrong place, partially impressed or doubly printed
Mit: (Ger.) via, with
Mitau: stamps issued for occupation of Kurland by the West Russian Army, 1919
Mit-Bera: Egypt, see Interpostal Seals, 1879-84
Mitchell, E. A.: postmaster, New Haven, Conn., 1844-52, issued provisional envelope in 1845, reprinted in 1871
Mit falz: (Ger.) hinged
Mit Flugpost: By Air, inscription on Belgium etiquettes, many other nations
Mit-Gamr: Egypt, see Interpostal Seals
Mit gummi: (Ger.) with gum
Mitilini: formerly Lesbos, now Lesvos; see Lesbos, Metelin
Mitläufer: (Ger.) stamps that are still valid for postage even though replaced by a new issue
Mit Luftpost: By Air, inscription on Colombia, Switzerland etiquettes, many other nations
Mittellitauen: (Ger.) Central Lithuania
Mittelstück: (Ger.) center piece (single stamp, multiple or block) in a sheet or large block of stamps
Mittigkeit: (Ger.) centering
Mit übergehendem stempel: (Ger.) cancel that ties stamps to the cover
Mixed fonts: use of different font types in overprints or typeset stamps
Mixed franking: a properly used cover with stamps of two or more countries or regimes
Mixed perforation: stamps that have different perforations on different sides, may be caused by re-perforation on one side due to bad perforation the first time
Mixed postage: Mixed franking
Mixed printing: more than one printing process used in the production of stamps
Mixture: a range of stamps, usually on original envelope clippings, containing duplicates; may contain varieties of shades, perforations and minor varieties
Mixture, bank: expected to contain higher-denomination stamps taken from business mail of a bank or similar institution
M.J.I.: Ministry of Justice and Instruction, overprint for Argentina officials
MJK: Michael J. Kennedy, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; Plate Finisher, Siderographer
Mjölklikblå: (Swed.) milky blue (color)
Mjölklikorange: (Swed.) milky orange (color)
M K: 1: Mekeel’s Weekly Stamp News. 2: Markka, currency unit in Finland
M. Kir.: Magyar Kirposta; Hungarian Post, 1916
M. Kir. Postatakarer Penstar: postal savings stamp, Hungary, valid for postage
M L: (Sp.) Malaga (Spain) pre-adhesive postage
M’Lachlan’s Post: bogus, local, Canada, about 1800s
M L H: Mint lightly hinged
M L O: Manchurian local overprints, issued in China after the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II
M.L.S.S.: Maple Leaf Strike Service, local, Canada postal strike, 1975
MM: Michael Morgan, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; Plate Finisher, Siderographer
M M: 1: abbreviation for Modified Margin. 2: Milan (Lombardy) pre-adhesive postmark. 3: abbreviation for millimeter. 4: Ministry of Marine, overprint for Argentina officials. 5: abbreviation for mounted mint (collection)
M N: USPS abbreviation for Minnesota
M N H: see Mint, never hinged
M O: 1: USPS abbreviation for Missouri.2: Missouri Territory
M.O.B.: Money Order Business USPS postal marking
Mobelmesse: revenue stamp, Germany
Mobile, Ala. Paid 2 Cents: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Mobile post office (MPO): a vehicular post office that can serve as a temporary postal station
Mocambique: (Port.) overprint / inscription for Mozambique, 1877
Mocha: also known as Al Mukha, Yemen Arab Republic
Mockba: (Cyrillic) Moscow
M.O. College Stamp: imitation of M.C. College Stamp
Mod, Moda: (It.) Modena (Italy) pre-adhesive postmark
Modegebiet: (Ger.) topical collecting
Model: photographs, artist’s sketches, and engraved prints that combine to mock up a proposed stamp design
Modeler: the individual who takes a drawn, painted, photographic or computer image and puts it into a format that can be adapted to a stamp printing process
Model Post Office, U.S.: display at San Francisco Expo 1915, with help on mailing techniques
Modena: duchy in upper Italy; 1852, June 1: first stamps of Este duchy issued, inscribed “Poste Estensi,” 1859: newspaper tax stamp issued, 1859, Oct. 15: provisional government inscribed “Provincie Modenesi,” 1860, Feb.: stamps of Modena superceded by stamps of Sardinia, 1860, Mar.16: Modena became Kingdom of Sardinia, stamps of Sardinia used, 1861, Mar.17: became part of the Kingdom of Italy
Modern First Day Cover: usually refers to the George Linn first cacheted envelope for the 2¢
Modern philately: refers to the current stamps being issued by the world’s postal administrations
Modones: Modena, Italian States, 1859
Modrá: (Czech.) blue (color)
Modrocerná: (Czech.) blue-black (color)
Modrofialová: (Czech.) blue-violet, bluish-purple (color)
Modrosedá: (Czech.) blue-grey (color)
Modrozelená: (Czech.) blue-green (color)
Modrost: (Czech.) blueness (color)
Modrozelená: (Czech.) blue-green (color)
Modrozeleny: (Czech.) bluish-green (color)
Modry: (Czech.) blue (color)
Modulo di offerta: (It.) bid sheet
Moeara Enim: overprint on stamps of Sumatra, local Palembang district, 1942-45
Moeara Klinggi: overprint on stamps of Sumatra, local Palembang district, 1942-45
Mogador Marrakesch: local post, Morocco
Mogadoro a Agadir: Sultanate of Morocco local post, Mogadoro to Agadir, questionable issue, 1895
Mogadoro a Maroc: Sultanate of Morocco local post, Mogadoro to Morocco, questionable issue, 1900
Mogadoro a Marrakesch: Sultanate of Morocco local post, Mogadoro to Marrakesch, questionable issue, 1892-1900
Moguer: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937-38
Mogyoróbarna: (Hung.) hazel-brown (color)
Mohéli: island between Madagascar and Africa, Comoro group; 1896: first stamps issued, 1906: own stamps, French Commerce and Navigation type, 1912, July 26: declared a colony, stamps of Mohéli surcharged, 1914: stamps of Madagascar, 1950: first issue of Comoro Archipelago, see Comoro Islands.
Moiré: wavy lines printed either on the face or back of a stamp to prevent cleaning and reuse
Moldavia: see1: Danubian principalities. 2: Moldova
Moldova: former Turkish province of eastern Europe; 1856: gained autonomy, 1858: issued its first stamp, 1862: joint issue with Walachia, 1865, Jan. first issue of Romania, 1881: first postage due stamp, 1906: first semi-postal stamp, 1928: first air mail stamp, 1929: first official stamp, 1940: Romania ceded part of Moldavia called Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, became Moldavian Socialist republic, part of the USSR, 1991: Moldavian rebels issued own stamps, 1991, Dec.26: joined with other former Soviet states to form the Commonwealth of Independent States 1992: issued its own stamps as Moldavia, 1993: people voted for independence, 1994, Nov. 12: issued first postage due stamp, 1992, Nov. 16: joined UPU
Moldova: (Fr.) Moldavia
Moldavian bull: term for stamps of Moldavia, Romania showing an ox head, 1858-59
Moldovei, moldovenesc: (Rom.) Moldavia, Moldavian (adj.)
Moldo-Wallachia: see Moldavia
Molette: (Fr.) inking roller
Molina de Segura: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Mollerussa: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Mollina: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937
Molly Pitcher: heroine of the Battle of Monmouth, N.J., General Washington gave her a sergeant’s commission as a half-pay officer; overprint on U.S. 2¢ stamp of Oct. 20, 1928
Molti Colori: (It.) multicolored
Moluccas: East Indies, aka Spice Islands, Dutch East Indies; 1943: stamps for use by Japan occupation forces, also used in Celebes, Lesser Sundas, and South Borneo. 1950: declared independence; overprint Republik Maluku Selatan
Molvizar: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937
Mominica: British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book, Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers
Mon: currency unit in Japan, Korea
Monachil: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist,1937
Monaco: principality in south of France; 1815: placed under protection of Sardinia, 1851-60: used stamps of Sardinia, 1858: became enclave within French territory, 1860-65: French general issues, 1861, Feb. 2: became independent, 1885, July 1: first stamps, 1886, Mar. 1: French stamps no longer valid, 1905: first postage due stamp, 1914, Oct: first semi-postal stamp, 1933, Aug. 22: first air mail stamp, 1955, Oct. 12: joined UPU
Monako: (Ger.) Monaco
Monastic Posts: operated among the monasteries, abbeys and convents of religious orders, starting about the12th century
Monastir: 1911, overprint on stamps of Turkey for Sultan’s visit to Macedonia
Mon.B.: Maison Biçêtre (Fr.) prison
Moncada: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
Monchehof: West Germany, displaced persons camp local post, 1946
Monchengladbach: German local post; 1: (Express-Packet-Verkehr) 1886-87. 2: (Gladbacher Courier) 1897-1900. 3: (Verkehrsanstalt Hansa) 1897
Monda: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937
Mondbrief: (Ger.) mail carried to the moon
Monde entier: (Fr.) whole world
Mondragon: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1936
Moneda: (Sp.) money, currency
Moneta: (It.) money, currency
Monetary Union: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1964
Money Letter: Canada used term as inscription on ordinary folded letter
Money order service: some U.S. post offices used money order date stamps to cancel mail
Money order system: U.S.: authorized May 17, 1864; went into effect Nov. 1, 1864; international 1867
Money stamps: various nations used stamps as currency during critical shortage of coins or paper currency; 1860-65: during U.S. Civil War period, stamps were placed in circular transparent cases, some with advertising, 1898-1900: stamps of Rhodesia stuck on cards and circulated as money, 1914-18: stamps of Great Britain used as small change, 1915-17: back-printed cards of Russia
Money unit: monetary denomination
Monforte del Cid: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Mongolia: formerly Outer Mongolia, in Asia; 1858-1924: stamps of Russia, 1909: Chinese post offices established inMongolia, 1911: Mongolian independence from China was declared, 1919: China reoccupied country, but Mongolia retained autonomy, 1921, Feb.: Russian anti-Bolshevik forces expelled the Chinese, 1921, July: Mongol and Soviet forces regained country, franks used, 1924-pre: Russia and Chinese operated post offices, 1924, Aug.: first stamps; denominated in Chinese currency; Living Buddha died, country declared a Soviet People’s Republic with first Mongolian stamps, 1924, Nov. 26: declared Mongolian People’s Republic, 1926, Feb.: fiscal stamps overprinted for regular postal use,1926: country introduced own currency, the Tugrik, 1932: pictorial definitive series started, 1939: Manchukuo and Japan attacked nation, 1945, Oct. 20: Sino-Soviet treat recognized independence of Mongolia, 1961, June 5: first air mail stamp, 1963, Aug. 24: joined UPU, 1967, Dec. 22: first semi-postal stamp, 1990: multi-party democracy declared
Mongolia: inscription on stamps of Outer Mongolia, 1926-45
Mongolie: (Fr.) Mongolia
Mongoliet: (Dan., Swed.) Mongolia
Mongolsko: (Czech.) Mongolian
Mongolsky: (Czech.) Mongolia
Mongtze (Mengtsze, Mong-Tseu): French concession post office; 1900, Jan.25: Indo-Chinese post office opened, overprint on stamps of Indo-China, denomination in Chinese characters, 1922, Dec. 31: post office closed; see China, Indo-Chinese Post Offices: French Post Offices in China
Monnaire: (Fr.) money, currency
Monocolored: stamp printed in a single color
Monocromo: (Sp., It.) monochromatic (color)
Monovar: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Monrovia: city in Liberia, registration inscription, 1893-1924
Monster: (Dut.) Dutch and Afrikaans term for specimen overprint on stamps of Netherlands and Transvaal; Specimen
Mont.: abbreviation for Montana prior to Zip Code usage
Montado: (Sp.) mounted
Montana: U.S. territory May 26, 1864, state Nov. 8, 1889; cut from Idaho territory
Montar: (Sp.) to mount stamps
Mont Atho: variety Russian Offices In the Turkish Empire, Mont Athos
Mont Athos: Northern Greece; 1869-82: overprint on stamps of Turkey, 1909-10: Turkish cities overprint on stamps of Russia, Offices in Turkish Empire
Montblanc: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
Montbrio: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Montcada i Reixac: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Monte: (Fr.) mounted
Monte Bello Island: labels, possibly from Western Australia, but source unknown, 1951-52
Monte Cassino: overprint on stamps of Poland, Polish Government in Exile in Great Britain, to honor the capture of Monte Cassino by Polish units of the Allied Forces, 1944
Monte de la Esperanza: (Sp.) 1938 Canary Islands commemorative issue; local semi-postals
Montefrio: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1936-37
Montejaque: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist (Malaga), 1937
Montenegro, Crveni krst: Rred Cross overprint on stamps of Montenegro, German occupation, 1944
Montenegro, Governatorato del: overprint on stamps of Montenegro, Italian occupation,1942
Montenegro Government in Exile: bogus label made in Rome for revival of monarchy, 1920-21
Montenegro, Kingdom of: formerly an Adriatic kingdom; 1874, May 1: first stamps, 1894: first postage due stamp, 1910: Montenegro declared a kingdom, 1913: Balkan War – Montenegrin forces invade Albania; postmark “Scutari Skador” used in northern Albania for city of Scutari, 1915, World War I – Montenegro occupied by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1916: Montenegro government in exile issued stamps at Bordeaux, 1917, Mar.: Austria-Hungary occupation overprint on stamps of Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1918, Dec. 1: liberated by Servian forces, but King Nicholas not invited back, 1919: stamps of Servia issued for new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, 1922, July 13: became part of Yugoslavia, 1929: country renamed Yugoslavia, 1941, June 16: first air mail stamp, overprint on stamps of Yugoslavia, (Italian occupation), 1941-43: overprint on stamps of Italy, Yugoslavia, Italian occupation, 1943, Nov. 22-1944: overprint on stamps of Germany, German occupation, 1943: Italian printed definitives, 1944: first semi-postal stamp, liberated by Russia, stamps replaced by Yugoslav issues
Monterey: 1867: bogus inscription on provisional issue of Monterey, 1914: stamps overprinted for local use by rebels
Montev., Mont:vo: (Sp.) Montevideo (Uruguay) pre-adhesive postmarks
Montevideo: with sun, inscription for carrier and ordinary issues, Uruguay, 1859-66
Montgat: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
Montgomery, Ala. Paid 2, 5, 10: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Montmany de Figaro: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
Montoro: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
Montreal: 1: (Post Par Inc.) Canadian local illegal post, 1988. 2: U.N. Post office(s) Canada, 1967
Montreal Messenger Service Reg’d: parcel delivery firm serviced Montreal; used labels; year unknown
Montreal Parcel Delivery: parcel delivery firm serviced Montreal; used labels, year unknown
Montreal Rapid Transit Co.: parcel delivery firm serviced Montreal; used a stamp, 1879
Montreuil-Bellay: French local provisional, 1944
Montreux: Switzerland hotel post,1854, C. Langbein’s Hotel
Montseny: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
Montserrat: British colony in the Caribbean, a Leeward Island; 1858-60: British stamps used for overseas mail, 1876: first stamps, Montserrat overprint on stamps of Antiqua, 1890, Oct.: used general issues of Leeward Islands, 1903: Montserrat and Leeward Islands stamps used concurrently, 1917: first semi-postal stamp, 1956: Leeward Islands stamps no longer used, became a colony, 1976, Apr. 12: first official stamp,
Montserrat: The Cruel Sea inscription, unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001
Moody, J. A.: postmaster, Victoria, Texas issued Confederate Postmaster’s Provisional
Moody, Michel & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
M.O.O.: Money Order Office postmark in British countries
Moody’s City Dispatch: bogus of Moody’s Penny Dispatch
Moody’s Penny Dispatch: U. S. local post, Chicago, IL., 1856
Moody’s Penny Post: S. Allan Taylor label
MOON: Money Order Office Number
Moon Landing: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1989, 1999
Moore, Dr. C.C.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Moore’s Express: private mail firm serviced are between Philadelphia, Pa. and Cape May, N.J.; used a label; 1849
Moose Jaw Flying Club: local, Canada, 1928
M.O.P.: Ministry of Public Works, overprint on stamps of Argentina officials
Moquegua (Moquea): overprint on Arequipa provisional issues and Peru, used during occupation by Chile, 1881-85
Mora: Ukraine
Morac, Rep.: bogus issue, unknown origin
Moral de Calatrava: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
Moravska Ostrava: German occupation “Mahrisch-Ostrau” local of Czechoslovakia, 1939
Mordavia: bogus Russian local post
Mordovia: 2002, Jan. 14: illegal labels, purporting to be stamps, Russian Federation report to the UPU; not valid for postage
Morehead’s: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp
Morelia: bogus; inscription on provisional local 19th century issue for state of Morelia, Mexico
Moresnet, Commune libre de: eastern part of Belgium; 1867: neutral territory between Germany and Belgium, cinderellas issued by stamp dealer Moens, 1886, Oct. 5: (Kelmiser Verkehrs-Anstalt) Belgian/German local post, eight labels valid for two weeks, 1867-1920: if mail was addressed to Germany and the east, German Reichpost was used; if mail headed for Belgium and the west, the mail went through the Belgian mails; Eupen
Morgan Envelope Co.: manufacturer of 19th century stamped envelopes and wrappers
Mørk: (Dan., Nor.) dark (as referencing the color of a postage stamp)
Mörk: (Swed.) dark (as referencing the color of a postage stamp)
Morkæblegrøn: (Dan.) dark apple-green (color)
Mörkäpplegrön: (Swed.) dark apple-green (color)
Mørkblå: (Nor.) dark blue (color)
Mörkblå: (Swed.) dark blue (color)
Mørkblåfiolett: (Nor.) dark blue-violet (color)
Mørkblågrønn: (Nor.) dark blue-green (color)
Mörkbrun: (Swed.) dark brown (color)
Mørkbrunkarmin: (Nor.) dark brown-carmine (color)
Mørkbrunligrå: (Nor.) dark brownish-gray (color)
Mørkbrunrød: (Nor.) dark brown-red (color)
Mørkeblå: (Dan.) dark blue (color)
Mørkeblågrøn: (Dan.) dark blue-green (color)
Mørkeblåliggrå: (Dan.) dark bluish-grey (color)
Mørkeblåliggrøn: (Dan.) dark bluish-green (color)
Mørkebrun: (Dan.) dark brown (color)
Mørkebrunkarmin: (Dan.) dark brown-carmine (color)
Mørkegrå: (Dan.) dark grey (color)
Mørkegrågrøn: (Dan.) dark grey-green (color)
Mørkegrøn: (Dan.) dark green (color)
Mørkegrønligblå: (Dan.) dark greenish-blue (color)
Mørkegrønliggrå: (Dan.) dark greenish-grey (color)
Mørkegul: (Dan.) dark grey (color)
Mørkekastanniebrun: (Dan.) dark chestnut brown (color)
Mørkemælkeblå: (Dan.) dark milky-blue (color)
Mørkemosgrøn: (Dan.) dark moss-green (color)
Mørkemyrtegrøn: (Dan.) dark myrtle-green (color)
Mørkeplegrønn: (Nor.) dark apple-green (color)
Mørkepurpur: (Dan.) dark purple (color)
Mørkepurpurbrun: (Dan.) dark purple-brown (color)
Mørkepurpurrød: (Dan.) dark purple-red (color)
Mørkerød: (Dan.) dark red (color)
Morkerosarød: (Dan.) dark rose-red (color)
Mørkfiolett: (Nor.) dark violet (color)
Mørkfiolettblå: (Nor.) dark violet-blue (color)
Mørkgrå: (Nor.) dark gray (color)
Mörkgrä: (Swed.) dark grey (color)
Mörkgrä-grä: (Swed.) dark grey-grey (color)
Mørkgråblå: (Nor.) dark gray-blue (color)
Mørkgråbrun: (Nor.) dark gray-brown (color)
Mörkgrön: (Swed.) dark green (color)
Mörkgrön-grön: (Swed.) dark green-green (color)
Mørkgrønn: (Nor.) dark green (color)
Mørkgrønnblå: (Nor.) dark green-blue (color)
Mørkgrønnligblå: (Nor.) dark greenish-blue (color)
Mørkgrønnoliven: (Nor.) dark green-olive (color)
Mørkkarmin: (Dan.) dark carmine (color)
Mörkkarmin: (Swed.) dark carmine (color)
Mörklila: (Swed.) dark lilac (color)
Mørklilla: (Dan.) dark lilac (color)
Mørklillabrun: (Dan.) dark lilac-brown (color)
Mørklillagrå: (Dan.) dark lilac-grey (color)
Mørklillarød: (Dan.) dark lilac-red (color)
Mørkoliven: (Dan., Nor.) dark olive (color)
Mørkolivengrå: (Dan.) dark olive-grey (color)
Mørkolivengrøn: (Dan.) dark olive-green (color)
Mørkolivengrønn: (Nor.) dark olive-green (color)
Mørkokker: (Dan.) dark ochre (color)
Mørkokkergul: (Dan.) dark ochre-yellow (color)
Mørkorangerød: (Dan.) dark orange-red (color)
Mørkorange: (Dan.) dark orange (color)
Mørkorangerød: (Dan.) dark orange-red (color)
Mørkoranjse: (Nor.) dark orange (color)
Mörkröd: (Swed.) dark red, cardinal red (color); Kardinalröd
Mörkröd-röd: (Swed.) dark red-red (color)
Mørkrødbrun: (Nor.) dark red-brown (color)
Mørkrosa: (Nor.) dark rose (color)
Mørksiennabrun: (Dan.) dark sienna-brown (color)
Mörk siennabrun: (Swed.) dark sienna-brown (color)
Mörk skiffergrå: (Swed.) dark slate-grey (color)
Mörkt blåakt grön: (Swed.) dark bluish-green (color)
Mörkt olivakt orangebrun: (Swed.) dark olivish orange-brown (color)
Mörkt orange: (Swed.) dark orange (color)
Mörkt orangebrun: (Swed.) dark orange-brown (color)
Mörkt orangeröd: (Swed.) dark orange-red (color)
Mörkt rödbrun: (Swed.) dark red-brown (color)
Mörk ultramarinakt blå: (Swed.) dark ultramarinish-blue (color)
Mørkviolet: (Dan.) dark violet (color)
Mørkvioletbrun: (Dan.) dark violet-brown (color)
Mørkvioletrød: (Dan.) dark violet-red (color)
Mörk violett: (Swed.) dark violet (color)
Mörk violettbrun: (Swed.) dark violet-brun (color)
Mörk violettkarmin: (Swed.) dark violet-carmine (color)
Mörk violettröd: (Swed.) dark violet-red (color)
Morman stamps: 1852; fraud of 5¢ blue stamps, depicting head of Brigham Young, “Utah” and “postage;” with forgeries of the fake stamps in 1906
Mornant: French local provisional post; 1944
Moroc: (Fr.) see Morocco
Morocco: see Affranch
Morocco: located on northwest coast of Africa; 1847: foreign post office opened in Tangier, 1857-86: stamps of Britain used (British P.O. in Morocco), 1860: used stamps from Spain, 1862: France operated post offices in Morocco using French stamps, 1886-98: stamps of Gibraltar used, 1891, Jan. 1: French stamp surcharged in Spanish currency used, (French P.O. in Morocco) 1898: stamps of Gibraltar overprinted for use in Morocco (British P.O. in Morocco), 1899, Dec.: first stamps (German P.O. in Morocco), 1890: private local posts widely used, 1902-56: “Maroc” inscription on stamps of France, 1903: stamps issued, “Correo Espan ol Marruecos,” “Tetuan,” “Marruecos,” and “Protectorado Espan ol en Marruecos,” overprint on stamps of Spain, Spanish P.O. in Morocco, 1907-56: used stamps of Britain, Spanish currency surcharge 1907-56; French currency surcharge (1917-Jan.8,1938), (British P.O. in Morocco), 1911-12: semi-official Sherifen (Cheriffien) Post, 1912: first stamps for Sherifan Post; three zones established; Tangier with European posts, the North had a Spanish protectorate, and a French protectorate was in the rest of the country, ended in Morocco in 1915; Tangier in 1919, 1914-pre: France, Great Britain, Germany, and Spain overprinted their stamps for use in Morocco, 1914, July 22: “Correo Espanol / Marruecos” overprint on stamps of Spain for the protectorate, withdrawn April 7, 1956, 1914, Aug. 1: first stamps issued; withdrawn Mar. 2, 1956 (French Morocco) 1917: French post offices used stamps of France and French Morocco inscribed “Tanger,” 1920, Oct.1: joined UPU, 1921: Tanger issued stamps of Spain overprinted “Tanger,” and “Cerreo Español Marruecos,” 1928-56: stamps inscribed “Marruecos,” 1935: first commemorative stamp, 1948: stamps inscribed “Tanger,” 1956 French (Mar. 2, 1956) and Spanish (Apr. 7, 1956) protectorates ended; all united to form Morocco, first stamps as “Maroc,” 1956-58: for currency reasons, used French denominationed stamps in the former French Protectorate, 1956-58: for currency reasons, used Spanish denominationed stamps in the former Spanish Protectorate, with values expressed in British, French and Spanish currency, 1956, May 19: first stamps, Southern Zone, 1956, Aug. 23: first issues for Northern Zone “Marruecos,” 1958: stamps in Spanish currency withdrawn, 1960, Mar.: first semi-postal stamp, 1965: first postage due stamp; see French Morocco, Spanish Morocco, British Post Offices in Morocco, French Post Offices in Morocco, German Post Offices in Morocco, Spanish Post Office In Morocco
Morocco British offices in: British P.O. in Morocco: 1857-86: stamps of Britain used, 1898: stamps of Gibraltar overprinted “Morocco / Agencies” for British post offices, 1907-56: used stamps of Britain, Spanish currency surcharge 1907-56; French currency surcharge (1917-Jan.8,1938)
Morocco, German offices in: 1899, Dec.: first stamps
Morocco, Spanish offices in: 1860: used stamps from Spain, 1903: “Correo Español Marruecos,” “Tetuan,” “Marruecos,” and “Protectorado Español en Marruecos,” overprint on stamps of Spain, 1914: used only in Tangier. 1938, Jan.: French currency overprint stamps withdrawn, offices in French Morocco closed, 1956: offices in Spanish Morocco closed, Morocco independent, 1957, April 30: Tangier foreign offices closed; see British Offices in Morocco, French Morocco, German Post Offices in Morocco, and Spanish Morocco
Morocco local posts: 1880: about 20 private local posts authorized, 1912: semi-official local posts by the Sultan of Morocco
Morocco, Northern Zone: 1956, Aug. 17: first stamps
Morocco, Southern Zone: 1956, May 19: first stamps, 1958, April 20: for entire territory
Morokulien: territory on border of Sweden and Norway; Moro means joy in Norwegian and Kul means joy in Swedish; children’s issue
Morrill & Co’s Express: private mail firm serviced Boston, Mass, and New Hampshire via Lowell railroad; used labels, year unknown
Morris European and American Express: private parcel firm that serviced U.S. and European cities; used a corner card and label, year unknown
Morris, Robert Postal Card: United States non-denominated postal card, value 13¢, 1981
Morshansk: local post, Russian Zemstvo, 1875-1904
Morte: inscription / overprint on C.L.N. issues of Italy; C L N
Morton’s Post: U. S. local post, Philadelphia, Pa
Morvi: India Feudatory State; 1893: first official stamp, 1931, Apr. 1: first local stamps, 1948, Feb. 15: incorporated into Saurashtra, 1948: joined the United States of Sorouth; 1950: uses stamps of Republic of India
Moschopolis: bogus issue printed for Epirus, source unknown
Moscow: also known as Moskva, USSR
Mosegrön: (Swed.) moss-green (color)
Mosegrønn: (Nor.) moss-green (color)
Mosgrøn: (Dan.) moss-green (color)
Moskva: also known as Moscow, USSR
Mosquito Coast: label for seceding state in Nicaragua, 1893-1900
Mostar: local for Bosnia Herzegovina, 1995
Mostra: (It.) specimen
Mosul: Vilayet and the town of Iraq; 1919: occupied by British forces, three stamps issued, known as the Mosul issue for use of the Indian forces, Turkish revenue stamps overprinted “Postage I.E.F. ‘D.'”
Mo.T.: Missouri territory, pre-adhesive postmark
Mother Die: term applied to the original engraved die in line engraving
Motiv: (Swed.) thematic, topical
Motive, Motif: see Topical or Thematic
Motivsamlinger: (Swed.) thematic collections, topical collections
Motorcycle Parcel Transport Service: parcel delivery firm, Canada, used a stamp, city and year unknown
Motor vehicle use stamps: U.S., issued during World War II to cut back on use of private vehicles, 1942-46
Motril: local post, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937-38
Mottagningbevis: (Swed.) (abbr. MB) return receipts
Mot Yttre Våld Med Enad Kraft: (Nor.) “With United Strength Against Outside Forces” on propaganda labels for Norwegian volunteers serving with Finnish armed forces
Mouchen Type: 1900; French stamp design with a seated female figure displaying a tablet “Droits de l’homme” (The Rights of Man) named after the artist, Eugene Louis Mouchen
Moulin Balls: see Boule de Moulins
Moulton’s Express: private parcel firm serviced Boston and Salem, Mass., used labels, 1878
Mount: any device for attaching a philatelic item to an album page or other display piece, the most common is a hinge
Mountain Badakhshan Autonomy: bogus Russian issue
Mountainous Karabakh, Republic of: local for seceding state; Azeri or Nagorno-Karabakh, Artsakh, 1993
Mountain Republic: local for Gorskaya SS Republic, 1921
Mount Athos: 1: Mont Athos. 2: Russian Post Offices in Turkey, 1909-14
Mount Athos: Turkish stamps overprinted for use as local stamps, 1873
Mount Brown Stamp Catalogue: 1863, one of the first in Great Britain
Mount Currie Express: Griqualand East, Natal local post stamp, 1874-77
Mounted: former term for a defective stamp that has had new margins added; used for an early stamp of unusual shape which was cut to shape
Mount Everest Expedition: India local stamps, Tibet, 1924
Mourning cover: cover with a black border to notify recipient of a death
Mourning stamp: stamp issued for the death of a president, king or other important personage in a nation, to indicate national bereavement, may have a black edge
Mourning stamp, US: depicting President Warren G. Harding, issued Sept. 1923
Mov: : (Rom.) red-lilac, mauve (color)
Movable box: see Boite mobile
Movie prop mail: in the 1940s, U.S. federal law lprohibited the use of real stamps in movies. The movie industry designed its own “stamps” for use on moviel mail
Moyen Congo: inscription on stamps of Middle Congo in French Equatorial Africa, 1907-33
Moyen Congo A.E.F.: overprint on postage due stamps of France and Middle Congo in French Equatorial Africa
Moyen Orient: (Fr.) Middle East (M E Forces)
Moyenne: (Fr.) a sound copy, not fine; if used, not too heavily postmarked
Mozambique: southeastern Africa; 1876, July: first issues for Portuguese colony consisting of eight stamp-issuing districts, Inhabane, Lourenco Manica and Sofala region, Marques, Mozambique, Nyassa, Quelimane, Tete, Zambezia. 1877: first issue for Moçambique, 1904: first postage due stamp, 1920, Dec. 1: first semi-postal stamp, 1938, Aug.: first air mail stamp, 1946: first air mail stamp, 1975, June 25: People’s Republic of Mozambique, 1978, Oct. 11: joined UPU
Mozambique Company: (Port. Companhia de Moçambique); 1892: first stamps for the territories of Manica and Sofala, 1906: first postage due stamp, 1917: first air mail, semi-postal stamps, 1941, July 18: charter ended
M P: 1: USPS abbreviation for Northern Mariana Islands. 2: Scott Catalog Number prefix for Military Newspaper (Austria)
M P O: 1: Mobile Post Office. 2: Military Post Office
M P P: see Mailer’s precancel postmark
MPS: Military Postal System, used for mail to be delivered within a military theater of operations
M Q: Scott Catalog Number prefix for Military Parcel Post (Germany)
M.Q.E.: 1: overprint on stamps of French colonial stamps for Martinique, 1886-91. 2: Argentina official overprint for Martinique, 1913-39
M R: 1: auction abbreviation for meters. 2:Scott Catalog Number prefix for War Tax
M R: Manager of Railways, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74
M.R.C.: Ministerio de Relaciones Culturales (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Religion). Argentina official overprint, 1913-39
MRG: Morris R. George, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; Plate Finisher, Siderographer
M.R.G.: Main Roads, Gambierton, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74
Mrs. Stewart: series of cinderella (bogus) issues printed by Mrs. Stewart’s liquid bluing.
Mr. Zip: cartoon-like character used to promote the use of the Zip Code on US mail, 1964-1986
M S: 1: Matched set, Mint sheet, Miniature Sheet, or Manuscript. 2: USPS abbreviation for Mississippi. 3: early U.S. postmark; normally abbreviation for Massachusetts or District of Maine. 4: Miniature or souvenir sheet
M.S.A.G.: Marchese San Giacinto Amministratore Generale (It.), 1845-52
M.S.G.A.: Marchese San Giacinto Amministratore (It.) verification of postage due, 1830-35
Mss.: Massachusetts, pre-adhesive postmark
M.T.: 1: Michigan, Minnesota, or Mississippi Territory, when used in a postmark. 2: USPS abbreviation for Montana
M T A: Matched Typed Address
Mt. Lebanon, La. 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals
Mt. Pinatubo Fund: Philippine postal tax stamp issued Nov. 16, 1992
M U: auction abbreviation for music topic
Muck, Island of: bogus, source unknown
Mudo: (Sp.) mute or killer cancellation, with no informational lettering
Muestra: (Sp.) specimen; see Specimen
Mufti: term for Canada’s King George VI definitive stamps of 1937; king attired in “civilian dress.”
M U H: Mint unhinged
Muhlberg: local post of Germany, 1945-48
Muhu: bogus Russian issue, not valid for postage
Muk, Island of: bogus Scotland island stamp
Mukalla: see Aden States
Mulhausen: (Stadt-Brief & Packet-Beforderung) local post of Germany, 1895-1900
Mulheim-Deutz-Cologne: (Packet-Verkehr) German local post, 1888
Mulheim / Rheim: (Mulheimer Privatpoist) German local post, 1893-94
Muller: Catalogue des Aerogrammes du Monde Entier, specialized worldwide aerogram catalog, 1950
Mulligan letters: name given to letters implicating James G. Blaine in improper transactions at the nominating convention of 1876 and campaign of 1884; Blaine exonerated of any wrong-doing
Mullsö Lokalpost: (Swed.) Swedish town local post
Mulready: named for designer of Britain’s first postal envelope in 1839; the decorated postal stationery was so ridiculed that it had a very short life
Mulready caricature: Mulready envelopes were printed in various designs ridiculed the official stationery; the caricatures did not prepay postage
Mult.: abbreviation for Multiple
Multa: (Sp.) overprint/inscription for postage due, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Portugal
Multada: (Sp.) fined, inscription on stamps of Chile, postage due
Multas: inscription on stamps of Ecuador for postage due
Multi-ad postal card: U.S. card with multiple advertisements, 1873-75
Multi cancel: cover that has two or more cancels on it
Multicolor: stamp printed in three or more colors
Multi-Color Corp.: subcontractor to American Bank Note Co. for printing U.S. booklets
Multilingual postmarks, stamps: inscribed in two or more languages, commonly used in registration markings
Multiple: an unseparated group of stamps that is less than the full sheet
Multiple cancels: covers with several separate postmarks
Multiple comb perforation: a machine that at one stroke perforates all four gutters surrounding each stamp in one or more rows
Multiple flight: cover flown on two or more flights of the same basic means, each with postal directions, markings or cachets to show the different flights
Multiple watermark: repetition of watermark design so that it is visible more than once
Multipositive: see Diapositive
Multa (da): (Sp.) postage due in Spanish language countries
Multi-Color Corp.: subcontractor to American Banknote Co. for printing US booklets
Multiplo: (It.) multiple
Multipost: U.S. postage meter firm, 1933-41, acquired by National Postage Meter Co
Multipost Commercial Controls: test stamp coils for postage affixer
Munchen: also known as Munich, Germany
Mung: currency unit in Mongolia
Munich: German local post: 1: (Private-Stadtpost Courier) 1896-1900. 2. (R.O.N.D.D.) 1948-53. 3: (Verkehrsbureau München), 1896-1900
Municipal service stamp: specially designed stamps used by municipalities for use on official mail
Munnie’s Express: private freight, parcel and baggage firm serviced New York City, used a label, year unknown
Munro’s Express: private mail delivery firm serviced New York City and New Bedford, N.J., 1852-55
Münster / Westf.: German local post, (Stadtbriefbeförderung Courier), 1897-1900
Muqdisho: inscription on stamps of Somalia
Murcia: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937
M. Urdal Local Post: Tromso – M. Urdal Local Post
Murnau: Polish officers camp, local post, 1942-44
Muro de Alcoy: local post, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Murray S N Co: Murray Steam Navigation Company: Australia, for use on the Murray and Murrumbidgee rivers,local post, 1866-73
Mürren: Switzerland hotel post, 1897
Mursteinrød: (Nor.) brick red (color)
Muscat: on Gulf of Oman, Arabia; 1856: stamps of India used, 1944: overprints used; first commemorative stamp, 1948: used stamps of Britain surcharged in Indian currency, 1957-pre: Muscat stamps used in Indian/British post offices in the Persian gulf area, mainly Qatar, 1961-pre: Muscat stamps used in Indian/British post offices in the Persian gulf area, mainly Dubai, 1971, Jan. 16: became Oman under a new sultan
Muscat and Oman: Oman; 1969: first commemorative stamp
Musée philatelique: (Fr.) Switzerland overprint for philatelic museum
Musée postal: (Fr.) postal museum
Musgrove’s (National) Evening Business College: college stamp
Mustang Express: 1870, local mail service by Jabez Fearey, Newark, N.J
Müster: (Ger.) overprint for specimen usage, started 1950s; Specimen
Mustique Island: St. Vincent Grenadines island; not authorized; 1976: stamps first issued,
Mutationes: relay stations, Roman imperial postal system, about 250 BC
Mutations Immobilieres: transfer of real estate; French Colonies revenue inscription
Mutations Mobilieres: transfer of personal property; French Colonies revenue inscription
Mutawakelite Kingdom of Yemen: Yemen
Mute cancel: made up of concentric rings or ovals; term applied to postage stamps or cancellations that do not indicate country or place of origin
Mutual Union Telegraph Company: U.S. telegraph stamps issued for use on own firm’s telegrams, 1882-83
Muungano: Zanzibar
M.V.i.R.: (Ger.) “Militar Verwaltung in Rumäien (Military Administration of Romania) overprint found on the German Germania and Romanian postage due and postal tax stamps issued during the 1917-1918 WWII German occupation of Romania: “Militär Verwaltung in Rumänien” (“Military Administration of Romania”)
Myanmar: formerly Burma
Mycket: (Swed.) very
Mycket gott ex: (Swed.) very fine example
Mycophilately: collecting and study of stamps depicting mushrooms, fungi, etc., thematic
Myanmar: formerly Burma; 1949, Oct. 4: joined UPU
My Bonnie: Donald Evans issue, New York
Mycket: (Swed.) very
Mycket gott ex: (Swed.) very fine example
Mylar: DuPont registered trade name for polyethylene terephthalate film that is colorless, transparent, strong, chemically stable, and considered archival quality for mounting stamps
Myrtegrøn: (Dan.) myrtle-green (color)
Myrtenrön: (Swed.) myrtle-green (color)
Myrtegrønn: (Nor.) myrtle-green (color)
Myrtengrön: (Swed.) myrtle-green (color)
Myslenice: city in former Austrian-occupied Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20
Mytilene: 1: Metelin. 2: Russian Post Offices in Turkey, “Metelin” 1909. 3: formerly Lesbos, now Lesvos; see Lesbos
M.Z.A.: (Sp.) Madrid-Zaragoza-Alicante railway, on semi-postal to raise funds for the evacuation of Madrid during the Civil War

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